Statutory Law - US Code - The Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure


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*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.

Current as of June 1, 2010

The Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure

Current as of June 1, 2010

I. APPLICABILITY OF RULES

Rule 1: Scope of Rules; Title

[NOTE: For most current version of this rule, see new amendments that became effective December 1, 2010]

(a) Scope of Rules.
   (1) These rules govern procedure in the United States courts of appeals.
   (2) When these rules provide for filing a motion or other document in the district court, the procedure must comply with the practice of the district court.
 
(b) [Abrogated]
 
(c) Title: These rules are to be known as the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure.
 

Rule 2: Suspension of Rules

On its own or a party's motion, a court of appeals may—to expedite its decision or for other good cause—suspend any provision of these rules in a particular case and order proceedings as it directs, except as otherwise provided in Rule 26(b).
 

II. APPEAL FROM A JUDGMENT OR ORDER OF A DISTRICT COURT

Rule 3: Appeal as of Right—How Taken

(a) Filing the Notice of Appeal.
   (1) An appeal permitted by law as of right from a district court to a court of appeals may be taken only by filing a notice of appeal with the district clerk within the time allowed by Rule 4: At the time of filing, the appellant must furnish the clerk with enough copies of the notice to enable the clerk to comply with Rule 3(d).
   (2) An appellant's failure to take any step other than the timely filing of a notice of appeal does not affect the validity of the appeal, but is ground only for the court of appeals to act as it considers appropriate, including dismissing the appeal.
   (3) An appeal from a judgment by a magistrate judge in a civil case is taken in the same way as an appeal from any other district court judgment.
   (4) An appeal by permission under 28 U.S.C. § 1292(b) or an appeal in a bankruptcy case may be taken only in the manner prescribed by Rules 5 and 6, respectively.
 
(b) Joint or Consolidated Appeals.
   (1) When two or more parties are entitled to appeal from a districtcourt judgment or order, and their interests make joinder practicable, they may file a joint notice of appeal. They may then proceed on appeal as a single appellant.
   (2) When the parties have filed separate timely notices of appeal, the appeals may be joined or consolidated by the court of appeals.
 
(c) Contents of the Notice of Appeal.
   (1) The notice of appeal must:
      (A) specify the party or parties taking the appeal by naming each one in the caption or body of the notice, but an attorney representing more than one party may describe those parties with such terms as "all plaintiffs," "the defendants," "the plaintiffs A, B, et al.," or "all defendants except X";
      (B) designate the judgment, order, or part thereof being appealed; and
      (C) name the court to which the appeal is taken.
   (2) A pro se notice of appeal is considered filed on behalf of the signer and the signer's spouse and minor children (if they are parties), unless the notice clearly indicates otherwise.
   (3) In a class action, whether or not the class has been certified, the notice of appeal is sufficient if it names one person qualified to bring the appeal as representative of the class.
   (4) An appeal must not be dismissed for informality of form or title of the notice of appeal, or for failure to name a party whose intent to appeal is otherwise clear from the notice.
   (5) Form 1 in the Appendix of Forms is a suggested form of a notice of appeal.
 
(d) Serving the Notice of Appeal.
   (1) The district clerk must serve notice of the filing of a notice of appeal by mailing a copy to each party's counsel of record — excluding the appellant's — or, if a party is proceeding pro se, to the party's last known address. When a defendant in a criminal case appeals, the clerk must also serve a copy of the notice of appeal on the defendant, either by personal service or by mail addressed to the defendant: The clerk must promptly send a copy of the notice of appeal and of the docket entries — and any later docket entries — to the clerk of the court of appeals named in the notice: The district clerk must note, on each copy, the date when the notice of appeal was filed.
   (2) If an inmate confined in an institution files a notice of appeal in the manner provided by Rule 4(c), the district clerk must also note the date when the clerk docketed the notice.
   (3) The district clerk's failure to serve notice does not affect the validity of the appeal. The clerk must note on the docket the names of the parties to whom the clerk mails copies, with the date of mailing. Service is sufficient despite the death of a party or the party's counsel.
 
(e) Payment of Fees: Upon filing a notice of appeal, the appellant must pay the district clerk all required fees: The district clerk receives the appellate docket fee on behalf of the court of appeals.
 

Rule 3.1: Appeal from a Judgment of a Magistrate Judge in a Civil Case

[This rule was abrogated on December 1, 1998]

Rule 4: Appeal as of Right—When Taken

[NOTE: For most current version of this rule, see new amendments that became effective December 1, 2010]

(a) Appeal in a Civil Case.
   (1) Time for Filing a Notice of Appeal.
      (A) In a civil case, except as provided in Rules 4(a)(1)(B), 4(a)(4), and 4(c), the notice of appeal required by Rule 3 must be filed with the district clerk within 30 days after the judgment or order appealed from is entered.
      (B) When the United States or its officer or agency is a party, the notice of appeal may be filed by any party within 60 days after the judgment or order appealed from is entered.
      (C) An appeal from an order granting or denying an application for a writ of error coram nobis is an appeal in a civil case for purposes of Rule 4(a).
   (2) Filing Before Entry of Judgment. A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision or order — but before the entry of the judgment or order — is treated as filed on the date of and after the entry.
   (3) Multiple Appeals. If one party timely files a notice of appeal, any other party may file a notice of appeal within 14 days after the date when the first notice was filed, or within the time otherwise prescribed by this Rule 4(a), whichever period ends later.
   (4) Effect of a Motion on a Notice of Appeal.
      (A) If a party timely files in the district court any of the following motions under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the time to file an appeal runs for all parties from the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion:
         (i) for judgment under Rule 50(b);
         (ii) to amend or make additional factual findings under Rule 52(b), whether or not granting the motion would alter the judgment;
         (iii) for attorney's fees under Rule 54 if the district court extends the time to appeal under Rule 58;
         (iv) to alter or amend the judgment under Rule 59;
         (v) for a new trial under Rule 59; or
         (vi) for relief under Rule 60 if the motion is filed no later than 28 days after the judgment is entered.
      (B)
         (i) If a party files a notice of appeal after the court announces or enters a judgment—but before it disposes of any motion listed in Rule 4(a)(4)(A)—the notice becomes effective to appeal a judgment or order, in whole or in part, when the order disposing of the last such remaining motion is entered.
         (ii) A party intending to challenge an order disposing of any motion listed in Rule 4(a)(4)(A), or a judgment's alteration or amendment upon such a motion, must file a notice of appeal, or an amended notice of appeal—in compliance with Rule 3(c)—within the time prescribed by this Rule measured from the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion.
         (iii) No additional fee is required to file an amended notice.
   (5) Motion for Extension of Time.
      (A) The district court may extend the time to file a notice of appeal if:
         (i) a party so moves no later than 30 days after the time prescribed by this Rule 4(a) expires; and
         (ii) regardless of whether its motion is filed before or during the 30 days after the time prescribed by this Rule 4(a) expires, that party shows excusable neglect or good cause.
      (B) A motion filed before the expiration of the time prescribed in Rule 4(a)(1) or (3) may be ex parte unless the court requires otherwise. If the motion is filed after the expiration of the prescribed time, notice must be given to the other parties in accordance with local rules.
      (C) No extension under this Rule 4(a)(5) may exceed 30 days after the prescribed time or 14 days after the date when the order granting the motion is entered, whichever is later.
   (6) Reopening the Time to File an Appeal. The district court may reopen the time to file an appeal for a period of 14 days after the date when its order to reopen is entered, but only if all the following conditions are satisfied:
      (A) the court finds that the moving party did not receive notice under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 77(d) of the entry of the judgment or order sought to be appealed within 21 days after entry;
      (B) the motion is filed within 180 days after the judgment or order is entered or within 14 days after the moving party receives notice under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 77(d) of the entry, whichever is earlier; and
      (C) the court finds that no party would be prejudiced.
   (7) Entry Defined.
      (A) A judgment or order is entered for purposes of this Rule 4(a):
         (i) if Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 58(a)(1) does not require a separate document, when the judgment or order is entered in the civil docket under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 79(a); or
         (ii) if Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 58(a)(1) requires a separate document, when the judgment or order is entered in the civil docket under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 79(a) and when the earlier of these events occurs:
            :  the judgment or order is set forth on a separate document, or
            :  150 days have run from entry of the judgment or order in the civil docket under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 79(a).
      (B) A failure to set forth a judgment or order on a separate document when required by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 58(a)(1) does not affect the validity of an appeal from that judgment or order.
 
(b) Appeal in a Criminal Case.
   (1) Time for Filing a Notice of Appeal.
      (A) In a criminal case, a defendant's notice of appeal must be filed in the district court within 14 days after the later of:
         (i) the entry of either the judgment or the order being appealed; or
         (ii) the filing of the government's notice of appeal.
      (B) When the government is entitled to appeal, its notice of appeal must be filed in the district court within 30 days after the later of:
         (i) the entry of the judgment or order being appealed; or
         (ii) the filing of a notice of appeal by any defendant.
   (2) Filing Before Entry of Judgment. A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision, sentence, or order — but before the entry of the judgment or order — is treated as filed on the date of and after the entry.
   (3) Effect of a Motion on a Notice of Appeal.
      (A) If a defendant timely makes any of the following motions under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, the notice of appeal from a judgment of conviction must be filed within 14 days after the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion, or within 14 days after the entry of the judgment of conviction, whichever period ends later. This provision applies to a timely motion:
         (i) for judgment of acquittal under Rule 29;
         (ii) for a new trial under Rule 33, but if based on newly discovered evidence, only if the motion is made no later than 14 days after the entry of the judgment; or
         (iii) for arrest of judgment under Rule 34.
      (B) A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision, sentence, or order — but before it disposes of any of the motions referred to in Rule 4(b)(3)(A) — becomes effective upon the later of the following:
         (i) the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion; or
         (ii) the entry of the judgment of conviction.
      (C) A valid notice of appeal is effective — without amendment — to appeal from an order disposing of any of the motions referred to in Rule 4(b)(3)(A).
   (4) Motion for Extension of Time. Upon a finding of excusable neglect or good cause, the district court may — before or after the time has expired, with or without motion and notice — extend the time to file a notice of appeal for a period not to exceed 30 days from the expiration of the time otherwise prescribed by this Rule 4(b).
   (5) Jurisdiction. The filing of a notice of appeal under this Rule 4(b) does not divest a district court of jurisdiction to correct a sentence under Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 35(a), nor does the filing of a motion under 35(a) affect the validity of a notice of appeal filed before entry of the order disposing of the motion. The filing of a motion under Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 35(a) does not suspend the time for filing a notice of appeal from a judgment of conviction.
   (6) Entry Defined. A judgment or order is entered for purposes of this Rule 4(b) when it is entered on the criminal docket.
 
(c) Appeal by an Inmate Confined in an Institution.
   (1) If an inmate confined in an institution files a notice of appeal in either a civil or a criminal case, the notice is timely if it is deposited in the institution's internal mail system on or before the last day for filing. If an institution has a system designed for legal mail, the inmate must use that system to receive the benefit of this rule. Timely filing may be shown by a declaration in compliance with 28 U.S.C. § 1746 or by a notarized statement, either of which must set forth the date of deposit and state that firstclass postage has been prepaid.
   (2) If an inmate files the first notice of appeal in a civil case under this Rule 4(c), the 14—day period provided in Rule 4(a)(3) for another party to file a notice of appeal runs from the date when the district court dockets the first notice.
   (3) When a defendant in a criminal case files a notice of appeal under this Rule 4(c), the 30—day period for the government to file its notice of appeal runs from the entry of the judgment or order appealed from or from the district court's docketing of the defendant's notice of appeal, whichever is later.
 
(d) Mistaken Filing in the Court of Appeals: If a notice of appeal in either a civil or a criminal case is mistakenly filed in the court of appeals, the clerk of that court must note on the notice the date when it was received and send it to the district clerk: The notice is then considered filed in the district court on the date so noted.
 

Rule 5: Appeal by Permission

(a) Petition for Permission to Appeal.
   (1) To request permission to appeal when an appeal is within the court of appeals' discretion, a party must file a petition for permission to appeal. The petition must be filed with the circuit clerk with proof of service on all other parties to the districtcourt action.
   (2) The petition must be filed within the time specified by the statute or rule authorizing the appeal or, if no such time is specified, within the time provided by Rule 4(a) for filing a notice of appeal.
   (3) If a party cannot petition for appeal unless the district court first enters an order granting permission to do so or stating that the necessary conditions are met, the district court may amend its order, either on its own or in response to a party's motion, to include the required permission or statement: In that event, the time to petition runs from entry of the amended order.
 
(b) Contents of the Petition; Answer or CrossPetition; Oral Argument.
   (1) The petition must include the following:
      (A) the facts necessary to understand the question presented;
      (B) the question itself;
      (C) the relief sought;
      (D) the reasons why the appeal should be allowed and is authorized by a statute or rule; and
      (E) an attached copy of:
         (i) the order, decree, or judgment complained of and any related opinion or memorandum, and
         (ii) any order stating the district court's permission to appeal or finding that the necessary conditions are met.
   (2) A party may file an answer in opposition or a crosspetition within 10 days after the petition is served.
   (3) The petition and answer will be submitted without oral argument unless the court of appeals orders otherwise.
 
(c) Form of Papers; Number of Copies: All papers must conform to Rule 32(c)(2). Except by the court's permission, a paper must not exceed 20 pages, exclusive of the disclosure statement, the proof of service, and the accompanying documents required by Rule 5(b)(1)(E). An original and 3 copies must be filed unless the court requires a different number by local rule or by order in a particular case.
 
(d) Grant of Permission; Fees; Cost Bond; Filing the Record.
   (1) Within 14 days after the entry of the order granting permission to appeal, the appellant must:
      (A) pay the district clerk all required fees; and
      (B) file a cost bond if required under Rule 7.
   (2) A notice of appeal need not be filed: The date when the order granting permission to appeal is entered serves as the date of the notice of appeal for calculating time under these rules.
   (3) The district clerk must notify the circuit clerk once the petitioner has paid the fees: Upon receiving this notice, the circuit clerk must enter the appeal on the docket: The record must be forwarded and filed in accordance with Rules 11 and 12(c).

Rule 5.1: Appeal by Leave under 28 U.S.C. § 636(c)(5)

[NOTE: This rule was abrogated on December 1, 1998]

Rule 6: Appeal in a Bankruptcy Case from a Final Judgment, Order, or Decree of a District Court or Bankruptcy Appellate Panel

(a) Appeal From a Judgment, Order, or Decree of a District Court Exercising Original Jurisdiction in a Bankruptcy Case: An appeal to a court of appeals from a final judgment, order, or decree of a district court exercising jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 1334 is taken as any other civil appeal under these rules.
 
(b) Appeal From a Judgment, Order, or Decree of a District Court or Bankruptcy Appellate Panel Exercising Appellate Jurisdiction in a Bankruptcy Case.
   (1) Applicability of Other Rules. These rules apply to an appeal to a court of appeals under 28 U.S.C. § 158(d) from a final judgment, order, or decree of a district court or bankruptcy appellate panel exercising appellate jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. § 158(a) or (b): But there are 3 exceptions:
      (A) Rules 4(a)(4), 4(b), 9, 10, 11, 12(b), 13—20, 22—23, and 24(b) do not apply;
      (B) the reference in Rule 3(c) to "Form 1 in the Appendix of Forms" must be read as a reference to Form 5; and
      (C) when the appeal is from a bankruptcy appellate panel, the term "district court," as used in any applicable rule, means "appellate panel."
   (2) Additional Rules. In addition to the rules made applicable by Rule 6(b)(1), the following rules apply:
      (A) Motion for rehearing.
         (i) If a timely motion for rehearing under Bankruptcy Rule 8015 is filed, the time to appeal for all parties runs from the entry of the order disposing of the motion: A notice of appeal filed after the district court or bankruptcy appellate panel announces or enters a judgment, order, or decree — but before disposition of the motion for rehearing — becomes effective when the order disposing of the motion for rehearing is entered.
         (ii) Appellate review of the order disposing of the motion requires the party, in compliance with Rules 3(c) and 6(b)(1)(B), to amend a previously filed notice of appeal: A party intending to challenge an altered or amended judgment, order, or decree must file a notice of appeal or amended notice of appeal within the time prescribed by Rule 4 — excluding Rules 4(a)(4) and 4(b) — measured from the entry of the order disposing of the motion.
         (iii) No additional fee is required to file an amended notice.
      (B) The record on appeal.
         (i) Within 14 days after filing the notice of appeal, the appellant must file with the clerk possessing the record assembled in accordance with Bankruptcy Rule 8006—and serve on the appellee—a statement of the issues to be presented on appeal and a designation of the record to be certified and sent to the circuit clerk.
         (ii) An appellee who believes that other parts of the record are necessary must, within 14 days after being served with the appellant's designation, file with the clerk and serve on the appellant a designation of additional parts to be included.
         (iii) The record on appeal consists of:
            : the redesignated record as provided above;
            : the proceedings in the district court or bankruptcy appellate panel; and
            : a certified copy of the docket entries prepared by the clerk under Rule 3(d).
      (C) Forwarding the record.
         (i) When the record is complete, the district clerk or bankruptcy appellate panel clerk must number the documents constituting the record and send them promptly to the circuit clerk together with a list of the documents correspondingly numbered and reasonably identified: Unless directed to do so by a party or the circuit clerk, the clerk will not send to the court of appeals documents of unusual bulk or weight, physical exhibits other than documents, or other parts of the record designated for omission by local rule of the court of appeals: If the exhibits are unusually bulky or heavy, a party must arrange with the clerks in advance for their transportation and receipt.
         (ii) All parties must do whatever else is necessary to enable the clerk to assemble and forward the record. The court of appeals may provide by rule or order that a certified copy of the docket entries be sent in place of the redesignated record, but any party may request at any time during the pendency of the appeal that the redesignated record be sent.
      (D) Filing the record. Upon receiving the record — or a certified copy of the docket entries sent in place of the redesignated record — the circuit clerk must file it and immediately notify all parties of the filing date.
 

Rule 7: Bond for Costs on Appeal in a Civil Case

In a civil case, the district court may require an appellant to file a bond or provide other security in any form and amount necessary to ensure payment of costs on appeal. Rule 8(b) applies to a surety on a bond given under this rule.
 

Rule 8: Stay or Injunction Pending Appeal

(a) Motion for Stay.
   (1) Initial Motion in the District Court. A party must ordinarily move first in the district court for the following relief:
      (A) a stay of the judgment or order of a district court pending appeal;
      (B) approval of a supersedeas bond; or
      (C) an order suspending, modifying, restoring, or granting an injunction while an appeal is pending.
   (2) Motion in the Court of Appeals; Conditions on Relief. A motion for the relief mentioned in Rule 8(a)(1) may be made to the court of appeals or to one of its judges.
      (A) The motion must:
         (i) show that moving first in the district court would be impracticable; or
         (ii) state that, a motion having been made, the district court denied the motion or failed to afford the relief requested and state any reasons given by the district court for its action.
      (B) The motion must also include:
         (i) the reasons for granting the relief requested and the facts relied on;
         (ii) originals or copies of affidavits or other sworn statements supporting facts subject to dispute; and
         (iii) relevant parts of the record.
      (C) The moving party must give reasonable notice of the motion to all parties.
      (D) A motion under this Rule 8(a)(2) must be filed with the circuit clerk and normally will be considered by a panel of the court. But in an exceptional case in which time requirements make that procedure impracticable, the motion may be made to and considered by a single judge.
      (E) The court may condition relief on a party's filing a bond or other appropriate security in the district court.
 
(b) Proceeding Against a Surety: If a party gives security in the form of a bond or stipulation or other undertaking with one or more sureties, each surety submits to the jurisdiction of the district court and irrevocably appoints the district clerk as the surety's agent on whom any papers affecting the surety's liability on the bond or undertaking may be served. On motion, a surety's liability may be enforced in the district court without the necessity of an independent action. The motion and any notice that the district court prescribes may be served on the district clerk, who must promptly mail a copy to each surety whose address is known.
 
(c) Stay in a Criminal Case: Rule 38 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure governs a stay in a criminal case.
 

Rule 9: Release in a Criminal Case

(a) Release Before Judgment of Conviction.
   (1) The district court must state in writing, or orally on the record, the reasons for an order regarding the release or detention of a defendant in a criminal case. A party appealing from the order must file with the court of appeals a copy of the district court's order and the court's statement of reasons as soon as practicable after filing the notice of appeal. An appellant who questions the factual basis for the district court's order must file a transcript of the release proceedings or an explanation of why a transcript was not obtained.
   (2) After reasonable notice to the appellee, the court of appeals must promptly determine the appeal on the basis of the papers, affidavits, and parts of the record that the parties present or the court requires. Unless the court so orders, briefs need not be filed.
   (3) The court of appeals or one of its judges may order the defendant's release pending the disposition of the appeal.
 
(b) Release After Judgment of Conviction: A party entitled to do so may obtain review of a districtcourt order regarding release after a judgment of conviction by filing a notice of appeal from that order in the district court, or by filing a motion in the court of appeals if the party has already filed a notice of appeal from the judgment of conviction. Both the order and the review are subject to Rule 9(a). The papers filed by the party seeking review must include a copy of the judgment of conviction.
 
(c) Criteria for Release: The court must make its decision regarding release in accordance with the applicable provisions of 18 U.S.C. §§ 3142, 3143, and 3145(c).
 

Rule 10: The Record on Appeal

(a) Composition of the Record on Appeal: The following items constitute the record on appeal:
   (1) the original papers and exhibits filed in the district court;
   (2) the transcript of proceedings, if any; and
   (3) a certified copy of the docket entries prepared by the district clerk.
 
(b) The Transcript of Proceedings.
   (1) Appellant's Duty to Order. Within 14 days after filing the notice of appeal or entry of an order disposing of the last timely remaining motion of a type specified in Rule 4(a)(4)(A), whichever is later, the appellant must do either of the following:
      (A) order from the reporter a transcript of such parts of the proceedings not already on file as the appellant considers necessary, subject to a local rule of the court of appeals and with the following qualifications:
         (i) the order must be in writing;
         (ii) if the cost of the transcript is to be paid by the United States under the Criminal Justice Act, the order must so state; and
         (iii) the appellant must, within the same period, file a copy of the order with the district clerk; or
      (B) file a certificate stating that no transcript will be ordered.
   (2) Unsupported Finding or Conclusion. If the appellant intends to urge on appeal that a finding or conclusion is unsupported by the evidence or is contrary to the evidence, the appellant must include in the record a transcript of all evidence relevant to that finding or conclusion.
   (3) Partial Transcript. Unless the entire transcript is ordered:
      (A) the appellant must—within the 14 days provided in Rule 10(b)(1)—file a statement of the issues that the appellant intends to present on the appeal and must serve on the appellee a copy of both the order or certificate and the statement;
      (B) if the appellee considers it necessary to have a transcript of other parts of the proceedings, the appellee must, within 14 days after the service of the order or certificate and the statement of the issues, file and serve on the appellant a designation of additional parts to be ordered; and
      (C) unless within 14 days after service of that designation the appellant has ordered all such parts, and has so notified the appellee, the appellee may within the following 14 days either order the parts or move in the district court for an order requiring the appellant to do so.
   (4) Payment. At the time of ordering, a party must make satisfactory arrangements with the reporter for paying the cost of the transcript.
 
(c) Statement of the Evidence When the Proceedings Were Not Recorded or When a Transcript Is Unavailable: If the transcript of a hearing or trial is unavailable, the appellant may prepare a statement of the evidence or proceedings from the best available means, including the appellant's recollection. The statement must be served on the appellee, who may serve objections or proposed amendments within 14 days after being served. The statement and any objections or proposed amendments must then be submitted to the district court for settlement and approval. As settled and approved, the statement must be included by the district clerk in the record on appeal.
 
(d) Agreed Statement as the Record on Appeal: In place of the record on appeal as defined in Rule 10(a), the parties may prepare, sign, and submit to the district court a statement of the case showing how the issues presented by the appeal arose and were decided in the district court. The statement must set forth only those facts averred and proved or sought to be proved that are essential to the court's resolution of the issues. If the statement is truthful, it — together with any additions that the district court may consider necessary to a full presentation of the issues on appeal — must be approved by the district court and must then be certified to the court of appeals as the record on appeal. The district clerk must then send it to the circuit clerk within the time provided by Rule 11. A copy of the agreed statement may be filed in place of the appendix required by Rule 30.
 
(e) Correction or Modification of the Record.
   (1) If any difference arises about whether the record truly discloses what occurred in the district court, the difference must be submitted to and settled by that court and the record conformed accordingly.
   (2) If anything material to either party is omitted from or misstated in the record by error or accident, the omission or misstatement may be corrected and a supplemental record may be certified and forwarded:
      (A) on stipulation of the parties;
      (B) by the district court before or after the record has been forwarded; or
      (C) by the court of appeals.
   (3) All other questions as to the form and content of the record must be presented to the court of appeals.
 

Rule 11: Forwarding the Record

(a) Appellant's Duty: An appellant filing a notice of appeal must comply with Rule 10(b) and must do whatever else is necessary to enable the clerk to assemble and forward the record. If there are multiple appeals from a judgment or order, the clerk must forward a single record.
 
(b) Duties of Reporter and District Clerk.
   (1) Reporter's Duty to Prepare and File a Transcript. The reporter must prepare and file a transcript as follows:
      (A) Upon receiving an order for a transcript, the reporter must enter at the foot of the order the date of its receipt and the expected completion date and send a copy, so endorsed, to the circuit clerk.
      (B) If the transcript cannot be completed within 30 days of the reporter's receipt of the order, the reporter may request the circuit clerk to grant additional time to complete it. The clerk must note on the docket the action taken and notify the parties.
      (C) When a transcript is complete, the reporter must file it with the district clerk and notify the circuit clerk of the filing.
      (D) If the reporter fails to file the transcript on time, the circuit clerk must notify the district judge and do whatever else the court of appeals directs.
   (2) District Clerk's Duty to Forward. When the record is complete, the district clerk must number the documents constituting the record and send them promptly to the circuit clerk together with a list of the documents correspondingly numbered and reasonably identified. Unless directed to do so by a party or the circuit clerk, the district clerk will not send to the court of appeals documents of unusual bulk or weight, physical exhibits other than documents, or other parts of the record designated for omission by local rule of the court of appeals. If the exhibits are unusually bulky or heavy, a party must arrange with the clerks in advance for their transportation and receipt.
 
(c) Retaining the Record Temporarily in the District Court for Use in Preparing the Appeal: The parties may stipulate, or the district court on motion may order, that the district clerk retain the record temporarily for the parties to use in preparing the papers on appeal. In that event the district clerk must certify to the circuit clerk that the record on appeal is complete. Upon receipt of the appellee's brief, or earlier if the court orders or the parties agree, the appellant must request the district clerk to forward the record.
 
(d) [Abrogated]
 
(e) Retaining the Record by Court Order.
   (1) The court of appeals may, by order or local rule, provide that a certified copy of the docket entries be forwarded instead of the entire record. But a party may at any time during the appeal request that designated parts of the record be forwarded.
   (2) The district court may order the record or some part of it retained if the court needs it while the appeal is pending, subject, however, to call by the court of appeals.
   (3) If part or all of the record is ordered retained, the district clerk must send to the court of appeals a copy of the order and the docket entries together with the parts of the original record allowed by the district court and copies of any parts of the record designated by the parties.
 
(f) Retaining Parts of the Record in the District Court by Stipulation of the Parties: The parties may agree by written stipulation filed in the district court that designated parts of the record be retained in the district court subject to call by the court of appeals or request by a party. The parts of the record so designated remain a part of the record on appeal.
 
(g) Record for a Preliminary Motion in the Court of Appeals: If, before the record is forwarded, a party makes any of the following motions in the court of appeals:
   : for dismissal;
   : for release;
   : for a stay pending appeal;
   : for additional security on the bond on appeal or on a supersedeas bond; or
   : for any other intermediate order —
 
the district clerk must send the court of appeals any parts of the record designated by any party.
 

Rule 12: Docketing the Appeal; Filing a Representation Statement; Filing the Record

(a) Docketing the Appeal: Upon receiving the copy of the notice of appeal and the docket entries from the district clerk under Rule 3(d), the circuit clerk must docket the appeal under the title of the districtcourt action and must identify the appellant, adding the appellant's name if necessary.
 
(b) Filing a Representation Statement: Unless the court of appeals designates another time, the attorney who filed the notice of appeal must, within 14 days after filing the notice, file a statement with the circuit clerk naming the parties that the attorney represents on appeal.
 
(c) Filing the Record, Partial Record, or Certificate: Upon receiving the record, partial record, or district clerk's certificate as provided in Rule 11, the circuit clerk must file it and immediately notify all parties of the filing date.
 

Rule 12.1: Remand After an Indicative Ruling by the District Court on a Motion for Relief That Is Barred by a Pending Appeal

(a) Notice to the Court of Appeals: If a timely motion is made in the district court for relief that it lacks authority to grant because of an appeal that has been docketed and is pending, the movant must promptly notify the circuit clerk if the district court states either that it would grant the motion or that the motion raises a substantial issue.
 
(b) Remand After an Indicative Ruling: If the district court states that it would grant the motion or that the motion raises a substantial issue, the court of appeals may remand for further proceedings but retains jurisdiction unless it expressly dismisses the appeal. If the court of appeals remands but retains jurisdiction, the parties must promptly notify the circuit clerk when the district court has decided the motion on remand.

III. REVIEW OF A DECISION OF THE UNITED STATES TAX COURT

Rule 13: Review of a Decision of the Tax Court

(a) How Obtained; Time for Filing Notice of Appeal.
   (1) Review of a decision of the United States Tax Court is commenced by filing a notice of appeal with the Tax Court clerk within 90 days after the entry of the Tax Court's decision. At the time of filing, the appellant must furnish the clerk with enough copies of the notice to enable the clerk to comply with Rule 3(d). If one party files a timely notice of appeal, any other party may file a notice of appeal within 120 days after the Tax Court's decision is entered.
   (2) If, under Tax Court rules, a party makes a timely motion to vacate or revise the Tax Court's decision, the time to file a notice of appeal runs from the entry of the order disposing of the motion or from the entry of a new decision, whichever is later.
 
(b) Notice of Appeal; How Filed: The notice of appeal may be filed either at the Tax Court clerk's office in the District of Columbia or by mail addressed to the clerk. If sent by mailthe notice is considered filed on the postmark date, subject to § 7502 of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and the applicable regulations.
 
(c) Contents of the Notice of Appeal; Service; Effect of Filing and Service: Rule 3 prescribes the contents of a notice of appeal, the manner of service, and the effect of its filing and service. Form 2 in the Appendix of Forms is a suggested form of a notice of appeal.
 
(d) The Record on Appeal; Forwarding; Filing.
   (1) An appeal from the Tax Court is governed by the parts of Rules 10, 11, and 12 regarding the record on appeal from a district court, the time and manner of forwarding and filing, and the docketing in the court of appeals. References in those rules and in Rule 3 to the district court and district clerk are to be read as referring to the Tax Court and its clerk.
   (2) If an appeal from a Tax Court decision is taken to more than one court of appeals, the original record must be sent to the court named in the first notice of appeal filed. In an appeal to any other court of appeals, the appellant must apply to that other court to make provision for the record.
 

Rule 14: Applicability of Other Rules to the Review of a Tax Court Decision

All provisions of these rules, except Rules 4—9, 15—20, and 22—23, apply to the review of a Tax Court decision.

IV. REVIEW OR ENFORCEMENT OF AN ORDER OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY, BOARD, COMMISSION, OR OFFICER

Rule 15: Review or Enforcement of an Agency Order—How Obtained; Intervention

(a) Petition for Review; Joint Petition.
   (1) Review of an agency order is commenced by filing, within the time prescribed by law, a petition for review with the clerk of a court of appeals authorized to review the agency order. If their interests make joinder practicable, two or more persons may join in a petition to the same court to review the same order.
   (2) The petition must:
      (A) name each party seeking review either in the caption or the body of the petition — using such terms as "et al.," "petitioners," or "respondents" does not effectively name the parties;
      (B) name the agency as a respondent (even though not named in the petition, the United States is a respondent if required by statute); and
      (C) specify the order or part thereof to be reviewed.
   (3) Form 3 in the Appendix of Forms is a suggested form of a petition for review.
   (4) In this rule "agency" includes an agency, board, commission, or officer; "petition for review" includes a petition to enjoin, suspend, modify, or otherwise review, or a notice of appeal, whichever form is indicated by the applicable statute.
 
(b) Application or CrossApplication to Enforce an Order; Answer; Default.
   (1) An application to enforce an agency order must be filed with the clerk of a court of appeals authorized to enforce the order. If a petition is filed to review an agency order that the court may enforce, a party opposing the petition may file a crossapplication for enforcement.
   (2) Within 21 days after the application for enforcement is filed, the respondent must serve on the applicant an answer to the application and file it with the clerk. If the respondent fails to answer in time, the court will enter judgment for the relief requested.
   (3) The application must contain a concise statement of the proceedings in which the order was entered, the facts upon which venue is based, and the relief requested.
 
(c) Service of the Petition or Application: The circuit clerk must serve a copy of the petition for review, or an application or crossapplication to enforce an agency order, on each respondent as prescribed by Rule 3(d), unless a different manner of service is prescribed by statute. At the time of filing, the petitioner must:
   (1) serve, or have served, a copy on each party admitted to participate in the agency proceedings, except for the respondents;
   (2) file with the clerk a list of those so served; and
   (3) give the clerk enough copies of the petition or application to serve each respondent.
 
(d) Intervention: Unless a statute provides another method, a person who wants to intervene in a proceeding under this rule must file a motion for leave to intervene with the circuit clerk and serve a copy on all parties. The motion — or other notice of intervention authorized by statute — must be filed within 30 days after the petition for review is filed and must contain a concise statement of the interest of the moving party and the grounds for intervention.
 
(e) Payment of Fees: When filing any separate or joint petition for review in a court of appeals, the petitioner must pay the circuit clerk all required fees.
 

Rule 15.1: Briefs and Oral Argument in a National Labor Relations Board Proceeding

In either an enforcement or a review proceeding, a party adverse to the National Labor Relations Board proceeds first on briefing and at oral argument, unless the court orders otherwise.
 

Rule 16: The Record on Review or Enforcement

(a) Composition of the Record: The record on review or enforcement of an agency order consists of:
   (1) the order involved;
   (2) any findings or report on which it is based; and
   (3) the pleadings, evidence, and other parts of the proceedings before the agency.
 
(b) Omissions From or Misstatements in the Record: The parties may at any time, by stipulation, supply any omission from the record or correct a misstatement, or the court may so direct. If necessary, the court may direct that a supplemental record be prepared and filed.
 

Rule 17: Filing the Record

(a) Agency to File; Time for Filing; Notice of Filing: The agency must file the record with the circuit clerk within 40 days after being served with a petition for review, unless the statute authorizing review provides otherwise, or within 40 days after it files an application for enforcement unless the respondent fails to answer or the court orders otherwise. The court may shorten or extend the time to file the record. The clerk must notify all parties of the date when the record is filed.
 
(b) Filing—What Constitutes.
   (1) The agency must file:
      (A) the original or a certified copy of the entire record or parts designated by the parties; or
      (B) a certified list adequately describing all documents, transcripts of testimony, exhibits, and other material constituting the record, or describing those parts designated by the parties.
   (2) The parties may stipulate in writing that no record or certified list be filed. The date when the stipulation is filed with the circuit clerk is treated as the date when the record is filed.
   (3) The agency must retain any portion of the record not filed with the clerk. All parts of the record retained by the agency are a part of the record on review for all purposes and, if the court or a party so requests, must be sent to the court regardless of any prior stipulation.
 

Rule 18: Stay Pending Review

(a) Motion for a Stay.
   (1) Initial Motion Before the Agency. A petitioner must ordinarily move first before the agency for a stay pending review of its decision or order.
   (2) Motion in the Court of Appeals. A motion for a stay may be made to the court of appeals or one of its judges.
      (A) The motion must:
         (i) show that moving first before the agency would be impracticable; or
         (ii) state that, a motion having been made, the agency denied the motion or failed to afford the relief requested and state any reasons given by the agency for its action.
      (B) The motion must also include:
         (i) the reasons for granting the relief requested and the facts relied on;
         (ii) originals or copies of affidavits or other sworn statements supporting facts subject to dispute; and
         (iii) relevant parts of the record.
      (C) The moving party must give reasonable notice of the motion to all parties.
      (D) The motion must be filed with the circuit clerk and normally will be considered by a panel of the court. But in an exceptional case in which time requirements make that procedure impracticable, the motion may be made to and considered by a single judge.
 
(b) Bond: The court may condition relief on the filing of a bond or other appropriate security.
 

Rule 19: Settlement of a Judgment Enforcing an Agency Order in Part

When the court files an opinion directing entry of judgment enforcing the agency's order in part, the agency must within 14 days file with the clerk and serve on each other party a proposed judgment conforming to the opinion. A party who disagrees with the agency's proposed judgment must within 10 days file with the clerk and serve the agency with a proposed judgment that the party believes conforms to the opinion. The court will settle the judgment and direct entry without further hearing or argument.
 

Rule 20: Applicability of Rules to the Review or Enforcement of an Agency Order

All provisions of these rules, except Rules 3—14 and 22—23, apply to the review or enforcement of an agency order. In these rules, "appellant" includes a petitioner or applicant, and "appellee" includes a respondent.
 

V. EXTRAORDINARY WRITS

Rule 21: Writs of Mandamus and Prohibition, and Other Extraordinary Writs

(a) Mandamus or Prohibition to a Court: Petition, Filing, Service, and Docketing.
   (1) A party petitioning for a writ of mandamus or prohibition directed to a court must file a petition with the circuit clerk with proof of service on all parties to the proceeding in the trial court. The party must also provide a copy to the trialcourt judge. All parties to the proceeding in the trial court other than the petitioner are respondents for all purposes.
   (2) (A) The petition must be titled "In re [name of petitioner]."
      (B) The petition must state:
         (i) the relief sought;
         (ii) the issues presented;
         (iii) the facts necessary to understand the issue presented by the petition; and
         (iv) the reasons why the writ should issue.
      (C) The petition must include a copy of any order or opinion or parts of the record that may be essential to understand the matters set forth in the petition.
   (3) Upon receiving the prescribed docket fee, the clerk must docket the petition and submit it to the court.
 
(b) Denial; Order Directing Answer; Briefs; Precedence.
   (1) The court may deny the petition without an answer. Otherwise, it must order the respondent, if any, to answer within a fixed time.
   (2) The clerk must serve the order to respond on all persons directed to respond.
   (3) Two or more respondents may answer jointly.
   (4) The court of appeals may invite or order the trialcourt judge to address the petition or may invite an amicus curiae to do so. The trialcourt judge may request permission to address the petition but may not do so unless invited or ordered to do so by the court of appeals.
   (5) If briefing or oral argument is required, the clerk must advise the parties, and when appropriate, the trialcourt judge or amicus curiae.
   (6) The proceeding must be given preference over ordinary civil cases.
   (7) The circuit clerk must send a copy of the final disposition to the trialcourt judge.
 
(c) Other Extraordinary Writs: An application for an extraordinary writ other than one provided for in Rule 21(a) must be made by filing a petition with the circuit clerk with proof of service on the respondents. Proceedings on the application must conform, so far as is practicable, to the procedures prescribed in Rule 21(a) and (b).
 
(d) Form of Papers; Number of Copies: All papers must conform to Rule 32(c)(2). Except by the court's permission, a paper must not exceed 30 pages, exclusive of the disclosure statement, the proof of service, and the accompanying documents required by Rule 21(a)(2)(C). An original and 3 copies must be filed unless the court requires the filing of a different number by local rule or by order in a particular case. 

VI. HABEAS CORPUS; PROCEEDINGS IN FORMA PAUPERIS

Rule 22: Habeas corpus and Section 2255 Proceedings

(a) Application for the Original Writ: An application for a writ of habeas corpus must be made to the appropriate district court. If made to a circuit judge, the application must be transferred to the appropriate district court. If a district court denies an application made or transferred to it, renewal of the application before a circuit judge is not permitted. The applicant may, under 28 U.S.C. § 2253, appeal to the court of appeals from the district court's order denying the application.
 
(b) Certificate of Appealability.
   (1) In a habeas corpus proceeding in which the detention complained of arises from process issued by a state court, or in a 28 U.S.C. § 2255 proceeding, the applicant cannot take an appeal unless a circuit justice or a circuit or district judge issues a certificate of appealability under 28 U.S.C. § 2253(c). If an applicant files a notice of appeal, the district clerk must send to the court of appeals the certificate (if any) and the statement described in Rule 11(a) of the Rules Governing Proceedings Under 28 U.S.C. § 2254 or § 2255 (if any), along with the notice of appeal and the file of the districtcourt proceedings. If the district judge has denied the certificate, the applicant may request a circuit judge to issue it.
   (2) A request addressed to the court of appeals may be considered by a circuit judge or judges, as the court prescribes. If no express request for a certificate is filed, the notice of appeal constitutes a request addressed to the judges of the court of appeals.
   (3) A certificate of appealability is not required when a state or its representative or the United States or its representative appeals.

Rule 23: Custody or Release of a Prisoner in a Habeas Corpus Proceeding

(a) Transfer of Custody Pending Review: Pending review of a decision in a habeas corpus proceeding commenced before a court, justice, or judge of the United States for the release of a prisoner, the person having custody of the prisoner must not transfer custody to another unless a transfer is directed in accordance with this rule. When, upon application, a custodian shows the need for a transfer, the court, justice, or judge rendering the decision under review may authorize the transfer and substitute the successor custodian as a party.
 
(b) Detention or Release Pending Review of Decision Not to Release: While a decision not to release a prisoner is under review, the court or judge rendering the decision, or the court of appeals, or the Supreme Court, or a judge or justice of either court, may order that the prisoner be:
   (1) detained in the custody from which release is sought;
   (2) detained in other appropriate custody; or
   (3) released on personal recognizance, with or without surety.
 
(c) Release Pending Review of Decision Ordering Release: While a decision ordering the release of a prisoner is under review, the prisoner must — unless the court or judge rendering the decision, or the court of appeals, or the Supreme Court, or a judge or justice of either court orders otherwise — be released on personal recognizance, with or without surety.
 
(d) Modification of the Initial Order on Custody: An initial order governing the prisoner's custody or release, including any recognizance or surety, continues in effect pending review unless for special reasons shown to the court of appeals or the Supreme Court, or to a judge or justice of either court, the order is modified or an independent order regarding custody, release, or surety is issued.
 

Rule 24: Proceeding in Forma Pauperis

(a) Leave to Proceed in Forma Pauperis.
   (1) Motion in the District Court. Except as stated in Rule 24(a)(3), a party to a districtcourt action who desires to appeal in forma pauperis must file a motion in the district court. The party must attach an affidavit that:
      (A) shows in the detail prescribed by Form 4 of the Appendix of Forms the party's inability to pay or to give security for fees and costs;
      (B) claims an entitlement to redress; and
      (C) states the issues that the party intends to present on appeal.
   (2) Action on the Motion. If the district court grants the motion, the party may proceed on appeal without prepaying or giving security for fees and costs, unless a statute provides otherwise. If the district court denies the motion, it must state its reasons in writing.
   (3) Prior Approval. A party who was permitted to proceed in forma pauperis in the districtcourt action, or who was determined to be financially unable to obtain an adequate defense in a criminal case, may proceed on appeal in forma pauperis without further authorization, unless:
      (A) the district court — before or after the notice of appeal is filed — certifies that the appeal is not taken in good faith or finds that the party is not otherwise entitled to proceed in forma pauperis and states in writing its reasons for the certification or finding; or
      (B) a statute provides otherwise.
   (4) Notice of District Court's Denial. The district clerk must immediately notify the parties and the court of appeals when the district court does any of the following:
      (A) denies a motion to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis;
      (B) certifies that the appeal is not taken in good faith; or
      (C) finds that the party is not otherwise entitled to proceed in forma pauperis.
   (5) Motion in the Court of Appeals. A party may file a motion to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis in the court of appeals within 30 days after service of the notice prescribed in Rule 24(a)(4). The motion must include a copy of the affidavit filed in the district court and the district court's statement of reasons for its action. If no affidavit was filed in the district court, the party must include the affidavit prescribed by Rule 24(a)(1).
 
(b) Leave to Proceed in Forma Pauperis on Appeal or Review of an Administrative Agency Proceeding: When an appeal or review of a proceeding before an administrative agency, board, commission, or officer (including for the purpose of this rule the United States Tax Court) proceeds directly in a court of appeals, a party may file in the court of appeals a motion for leave to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis with an affidavit prescribed by Rule 24(a)(1).
 
(c) Leave to Use Original Record: A party allowed to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis may request that the appeal be heard on the original record without reproducing any part.
 

VII. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Rule 25: Filing and Service

(a) Filing.
   (1) Filing with the Clerk. A paper required or permitted to be filed in a court of appeals must be filed with the clerk.
   (2) Filing: Method and Timeliness.
      (A) In general. Filing may be accomplished by mail addressed to the clerk, but filing is not timely unless the clerk receives the papers within the time fixed for filing.
      (B) A brief or appendix. A brief or appendix is timely filed, however, if on or before the last day for filing, it is:
         (i) mailed to the clerk by FirstClass Mail, or other class of mail that is at least as expeditious, postage prepaid; or
         (ii) dispatched to a thirdparty commercial carrier for delivery to the clerk within 3 days.
      (C) Inmate filing. A paper filed by an inmate confined in an institution is timely if deposited in the institution's internal mailing system on or before the last day for filing. If an institution has a system designed for legal mail, the inmate must use that system to receive the benefit of this rule. Timely filing may be shown by a declaration in compliance with 28 U.S.C. § 1746 or by a notarized statement, either of which must set forth the date of deposit and state that firstclass postage has been prepaid.
      (D) Electronic filing. A court of appeals may by local rule permit or require papers to be filed, signed, or verified by electronic means that are consistent with technical standards, if any, that the Judicial Conference of the United States establishes. A local rule may require filing by electronic means only if reasonable exceptions are allowed. A paper filed by electronic means in compliance with a local rule constitutes a written paper for the purpose of applying these rules.
   (3) Filing a Motion with a Judge. If a motion requests relief that may be granted by a single judge, the judge may permit the motion to be filed with the judge; the judge must note the filing date on the motion and give it to the clerk.
   (4) Clerk's Refusal of Documents. The clerk must not refuse to accept for filing any paper presented for that purpose solely because it is not presented in proper form as required by these rules or by any local rule or practice.
   (5) Privacy Protection. An appeal in a case whose privacy protection was governed by Federal Rule of Bankruptcy Procedure 9037, Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 5.2, or Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 49.1 is governed by the same rule on appeal. In all other proceedings, privacy protection is governed by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 5.2, except that Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 49.1 governs when an extraordinary writ is sought in a criminal case.
 
(b) Service of All Papers Required: Unless a rule requires service by the clerk, a party must, at or before the time of filing a paper, serve a copy on the other parties to the appeal or review. Service on a party represented by counsel must be made on the party's counsel.
 
(c) Manner of Service.
   (1) Service may be any of the following:
      (A) personal, including delivery to a responsible person at the office of counsel;
      (B) by mail;
      (C) by thirdparty commercial carrier for delivery within 3 days; or
      (D) by electronic means, if the party being served consents in writing.
   (2) If authorized by local rule, a party may use the court's transmission equipment to make electronic service under Rule 25(c)(1)(D).
   (3) When reasonable considering such factors as the immediacy of the relief sought, distance, and cost, service on a party must be by a manner at least as expeditious as the manner used to file the paper with the court.
   (4) Service by mail or by commercial carrier is complete on mailing or delivery to the carrier. Service by electronic means is complete on transmission, unless the party making service is notified that the paper was not received by the party served.
 
(d) Proof of Service.
   (1) A paper presented for filing must contain either of the following:
      (A) an acknowledgment of service by the person served; or
      (B) proof of service consisting of a statement by the person who made service certifying:
         (i) the date and manner of service;
         (ii) the names of the persons served; and
         (iii) their mail or electronic addresses, facsimile numbers, or the addresses of the places of delivery, as appropriate for the manner of service.
   (2) When a brief or appendix is filed by mailing or dispatch in accordance with Rule 25(a)(2)(B), the proof of service must also state the date and manner by which the document was mailed or dispatched to the clerk.
   (3) Proof of service may appear on or be affixed to the papers filed.
 
(e) Number of Copies: When these rules require the filing or furnishing of a number of copies, a court may require a different number by local rule or by order in a particular case.
 

Rule 26: Computing and Extending Time

(a) Computing Time: The following rules apply in computing any time period specified in these rules, in any local rule or court order, or in any statute that does not specify a method of computing time.
   (1) Period Stated in Days or a Longer Unit. When the period is stated in days or a longer unit of time:
      (A) exclude the day of the event that triggers the period;
      (B) count every day, including intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays; and
      (C) include the last day of the period, but if the last day is a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the end of the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
   (2) Period Stated in Hours. When the period is stated in hours:
      (A) begin counting immediately on the occurrence of the event that triggers the period;
      (B) count every hour, including hours during intermediate Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays; and
      (C) if the period would end on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the period continues to run until the same time on the next day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
   (3) Inaccessibility of the Clerk's Office. Unless the court orders otherwise, if the clerk's office is inaccessible:
      (A) on the last day for filing under Rule 26(a)(1), then the time for filing is extended to the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday; or
      (B) during the last hour for filing under Rule 26(a)(2), then the time for filing is extended to the same time on the first accessible day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
   (4) "Last Day" Defined. Unless a different time is set by a statute, local rule, or court order, the last day ends:
      (A) for electronic filing in the district court, at midnight in the court's time zone;
      (B) for electronic filing in the court of appeals, at midnight in the time zone of the circuit clerk's principal office;
      (C) for filing under Rules 4(c)(1), 25(a)(2)(B), and 25(a)(2)(C)—and filing by mail under Rule 13(b)—at the latest time for the method chosen for delivery to the post office, thirdparty commercial carrier, or prison mailing system; and
      (D) for filing by other means, when the clerk's office is scheduled to close.
   (5) "Next Day" Defined. The "next day" is determined by continuing to count forward when the period is measured after an event and backward when measured before an event.
   (6) "Legal Holiday" Defined. "Legal holiday" means:
      (A) the day set aside by statute for observing New Year's Day, Martin Luther King Jr.'s Birthday, Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans' Day, Thanksgiving Day, or Christmas Day;
      (B) any day declared a holiday by the President or Congress; and
      (C) for periods that are measured after an event, any other day declared a holiday by the state where either of the following is located: the district court that rendered the challenged judgment or order, or the circuit clerk's principal office.
 
(b) Extending Time: For good cause, the court may extend the time prescribed by these rules or by its order to perform any act, or may permit an act to be done after that time expires: But the court may not extend the time to file:
   (1) a notice of appeal (except as authorized in Rule 4) or a petition for permission to appeal; or
   (2) a notice of appeal from or a petition to enjoin, set aside, suspend, modify, enforce, or otherwise review an order of an administrative agency, board, commission, or officer of the United States, unless specifically authorized by law.
 
(c) Additional Time after Service: When a party may or must act within a specified time after service, 3 days are added after the period would otherwise expire under Rule 26(a), unless the paper is delivered on the date of service stated in the proof of service. For purposes of this Rule 26(c), a paper that is served electronically is not treated as delivered on the date of service stated in the proof of service.

Rule 26.1: Corporate Disclosure Statement

(a) Who Must File: Any nongovernmental corporate party to a proceeding in a court of appeals must file a statement that identifies any parent corporation and any publicly held corporation that owns 10% or more of its stock or states that there is no such corporation.
 
(b) Time for Filing; Supplemental Filing: A party must file the Rule 26.1(a) statement with the principal brief or upon filing a motion, response, petition, or answer in the court of appeals, whichever occurs first, unless a local rule requires earlier filing. Even if the statement has already been filed, the party's principal brief must include the statement before the table of contents. A party must supplement its statement whenever the information that must be disclosed under Rule 26.1(a) changes.
 
(c) Number of Copies: If the Rule 26.1(a) statement is filed before the principal brief, or if a supplemental statement is filed, the party must file an original and 3 copies unless the court requires a different number by local rule or by order in a particular case.

Rule 27: Motions

(a) In General.
   (1) Application for Relief. An application for an order or other relief is made by motion unless these rules prescribe another form. A motion must be in writing unless the court permits otherwise.
   (2) Contents of a Motion.
      (A) Grounds and relief sought. A motion must state with particularity the grounds for the motion, the relief sought, and the legal argument necessary to support it.
      (B) Accompanying documents.
         (i) Any affidavit or other paper necessary to support a motion must be served and filed with the motion.
         (ii) An affidavit must contain only factual information, not legal argument.
         (iii) A motion seeking substantive relief must include a copy of the trial court's opinion or agency's decision as a separate exhibit.
      (C) Documents barred or not required.
         (i) A separate brief supporting or responding to a motion must not be filed.
         (ii) A notice of motion is not required.
         (iii) A proposed order is not required.
   (3) Response.
      (A) Time to file. Any party may file a response to a motion; Rule 27(a)(2) governs its contents. The response must be filed within 10 days after service of the motion unless the court shortens or extends the time. A motion authorized by Rules 8, 9, 18, or 41 may be granted before the 10—day period runs only if the court gives reasonable notice to the parties that it intends to act sooner.
      (B) Request for affirmative relief. A response may include a motion for affirmative relief. The time to respond to the new motion, and to reply to that response, are governed by Rule 27(a)(3)(A) and (a)(4). The title of the response must alert the court to the request for relief.
   (4) Reply to Response. Any reply to a response must be filed within 7 days after service of the response. A reply must not present matters that do not relate to the response.
 
(b) Disposition of a Motion for a Procedural Order: The court may act on a motion for a procedural order—including a motion under Rule 26(b)—at any time without awaiting a response, and may, by rule or by order in a particular case, authorize its clerk to act on specified types of procedural motions. A party adversely affected by the court's, or the clerk's, action may file a motion to reconsider, vacate, or modify that action. Timely opposition filed after the motion is granted in whole or in part does not constitute a request to reconsider, vacate, or modify the disposition; a motion requesting that relief must be filed.
 
(c) Power of a Single Judge to Entertain a Motion: A circuit judge may act alone on any motion, but may not dismiss or otherwise determine an appeal or other proceeding. A court of appeals may provide by rule or by order in a particular case that only the court may act on any motion or class of motions: The court may review the action of a single judge.
 
(d) Form of Papers; Page Limits; and Number of Copies.
   (1) Format.
      (A) Reproduction. A motion, response, or reply may be reproduced by any process that yields a clear black image on light paper. The paper must be opaque and unglazed. Only one side of the paper may be used.
      (B) Cover. A cover is not required, but there must be a caption that includes the case number, the name of the court, the title of the case, and a brief descriptive title indicating the purpose of the motion and identifying the party or parties for whom it is filed. If a cover is used, it must be white.
      (C) Binding. The document must be bound in any manner that is secure, does not obscure the text, and permits the document to lie reasonably flat when open.
      (D) Paper size, line spacing, and margins. The document must be on 81/2 by 11 inch paper. The text must be doublespaced, but quotations more than two lines long may be indented and singlespaced. Headings and footnotes may be singlespaced. Margins must be at least one inch on all four sides. Page numbers may be placed in the margins, but no text may appear there.
      (E) Typeface and type styles. The document must comply with the typeface requirements of Rule 32(a)(5) and the typestyle requirements of Rule 32(a)(6).
   (2) Page Limits. A motion or a response to a motion must not exceed 20 pages, exclusive of the corporate disclosure statement and accompanying documents authorized by Rule 27(a)(2)(B), unless the court permits or directs otherwise: A reply to a response must not exceed 10 pages.
   (3) Number of Copies. An original and 3 copies must be filed unless the court requires a different number by local rule or by order in a particular case.
 
(e) Oral Argument: A motion will be decided without oral argument unless the court orders otherwise.
 

Rule 28: Briefs

(a) Appellant's Brief: The appellant's brief must contain, under appropriate headings and in the order indicated:
   (1) a corporate disclosure statement if required by Rule 26.1;
   (2) a table of contents, with page references;
   (3) a table of authorities — cases (alphabetically arranged), statutes, and other authorities — with references to the pages of the brief where they are cited;
   (4) a jurisdictional statement, including:
      (A) the basis for the district court's or agency's subjectmatter jurisdiction, with citations to applicable statutory provisions and stating relevant facts establishing jurisdiction;
      (B) the basis for the court of appeals' jurisdiction, with citations to applicable statutory provisions and stating relevant facts establishing jurisdiction;
      (C) the filing dates establishing the timeliness of the appeal or petition for review; and
      (D) an assertion that the appeal is from a final order or judgment that disposes of all parties' claims, or information establishing the court of appeals' jurisdiction on some other basis;
   (5) a statement of the issues presented for review;
   (6) a statement of the case briefly indicating the nature of the case, the course of proceedings, and the disposition below;
   (7) a statement of facts relevant to the issues submitted for review with appropriate references to the record (see Rule 28(e));
   (8) a summary of the argument, which must contain a succinct, clear, and accurate statement of the arguments made in the body of the brief, and which must not merely repeat the argument headings;
   (9) the argument, which must contain:
      (A) appellant's contentions and the reasons for them, with citations to the authorities and parts of the record on which the appellant relies; and
      (B) or each issue, a concise statement of the applicable standard of review (which may appear in the discussion of the issue or under a separate heading placed before the discussion of the issues);
   (10) a short conclusion stating the precise relief sought; and
   (11) the certificate of compliance, if required by Rule 32(a)(7).
 
(b) Appellee's Brief: The appellee's brief must conform to the requirements of Rule 28(a)(1)(9) and (11), except that none of the following need appear unless the appellee is dissatisfied with the appellant's statement:
   (1) the jurisdictional statement;
   (2) the statement of the issues;
   (3) the statement of the case;
   (4) the statement of the facts; and
   (5) the statement of the standard of review.
 
(c) Reply Brief: The appellant may file a brief in reply to the appellee's brief. Unless the court permits, no further briefs may be filed. A reply brief must contain a table of contents, with page references, and a table of authorities—cases (alphabetically arranged), statutes, and other authorities—with references to the pages of the reply brief where they are cited.
 
(d) References to Parties: In briefs and at oral argument, counsel should minimize use of the terms "appellant" and "appellee." To make briefs clear, counsel should use the parties' actual names or the designations used in the lower court or agency proceeding, or such descriptive terms as "the employee," "the injured person," "the taxpayer," "the ship," "the stevedore."
 
(e) References to the Record: References to the parts of the record contained in the appendix filed with the appellant's brief must be to the pages of the appendix. If the appendix is prepared after the briefs are filed, a party referring to the record must follow one of the methods detailed in Rule 30(c): If the original record is used under Rule 30(f) and is not consecutively paginated, or if the brief refers to an unreproduced part of the record, any reference must be to the page of the original document: or example:
   : Answer p. 7;
   : Motion for Judgment p. 2;
   : Transcript p. 231.
 
Only clear abbreviations may be used. A party referring to evidence whose admissibility is in controversy must cite the pages of the appendix or of the transcript at which the evidence was identified, offered, and received or rejected.
 
(f) Reproduction of Statutes, Rules, Regulations, etc: If the court's determination of the issues presented requires the study of statutes, rules, regulations, etc., the relevant parts must be set out in the brief or in an addendum at the end, or may be supplied to the court in pamphlet form.
 
(g) [Reserved]
 
(h) [Reserved]
 
(i) Briefs in a Case Involving Multiple Appellants or Appellees: In a case involving more than one appellant or appellee, including consolidated cases, any number of appellants or appellees may join in a brief, and any party may adopt by reference a part of another's brief. Parties may also join in reply briefs.
 
(j) Citation of Supplemental Authorities: If pertinent and significant authorities come to a party's attention after the party's brief has been filed — or after oral argument but before decision — a party may promptly advise the circuit clerk by letter, with a copy to all other parties, setting forth the citations. The letter must state the reasons for the supplemental citations, referring either to the page of the brief or to a point argued orally. The body of the letter must not exceed 350 words. Any response must be made promptly and must be similarly limited.

Rule 28.1: CrossAppeals

(a) Applicability: This rule applies to a case in which a crossappeal is filed. Rules 28(a)(c), 31(a)(1), 32(a)(2), and 32(a)(7)(A)(B) do not apply to such a case, except as otherwise provided in this rule.
 
(b) Designation of Appellant: The party who files a notice of appeal first is the appellant for the purposes of this rule and Rules 30 and 34. If notices are filed on the same day, the plaintiff in the proceeding below is the appellant. These designations may be modified by the parties' agreement or by court order.
 
(c) Briefs: In a case involving a crossappeal:
   (1) Appellant's Principal Brief. The appellant must file a principal brief in the appeal. That brief must comply with Rule 28(a).
   (2) Appellee's Principal and Response Brief. The appellee must file a principal brief in the crossappeal and must, in the same brief, respond to the principal brief in the appeal. That appellee's brief must comply with Rule 28(a), except that the brief need not include a statement of the case or a statement of the facts unless the appellee is dissatisfied with the appellant's statement.
   (3) Appellant's Response and Reply Brief. The appellant must file a brief that responds to the principal brief in the crossappeal and may, in the same brief, reply to the response in the appeal. That brief must comply with Rule 28(a)(2)(9) and (11), except that none of the following need appear unless the appellant is dissatisfied with the appellee's statement in the crossappeal:
      (A) the jurisdictional statement;
      (B) the statement of the issues;
      (C) the statement of the case;
      (D) the statement of the facts; and
      (E) the statement of the standard of review.
   (4) Appellee's Reply Brief. The appellee may file a brief in reply to the response in the crossappeal. That brief must comply with Rule 28(a)(2)(3) and (11) and must be limited to the issues presented by the crossappeal.
   (5) No Further Briefs. Unless the court permits, no further briefs may be filed in a case involving a crossappeal.
 
(d) Cover: Except for filings by unrepresented parties, the cover of the appellant's principal brief must be blue; the appellee's principal and response brief, red; the appellant's response and reply brief, yellow; the appellee's reply brief, gray; an intervenor's or amicus curiae's brief, green; and any supplemental brief, tan. The front cover of a brief must contain the information required by Rule 32(a)(2).
 
(e) Length.
   (1) Page Limitation. Unless it complies with Rule 28.1(e)(2) and (3), the appellant's principal brief must not exceed 30 pages; the appellee's principal and response brief, 35 pages; the appellant's response and reply brief, 30 pages; and the appellee's reply brief, 15 pages.
   (2) TypeVolume Limitation.
      (A) The appellant's principal brief or the appellant's response and reply brief is acceptable if:
         (i) it contains no more than 14,000 words; or
         (ii) it uses a monospaced face and contains no more than 1,300 lines of text.
      (B) The appellee's principal and response brief is acceptable if:
         (i) it contains no more than 16,500 words; or
         (ii) it uses a monospaced face and contains no more than 1,500 lines of text.
      (C) The appellee's reply brief is acceptable if it contains no more than half of the type volume specified in Rule 28.1(e)(2)(A).
   (3) Certificate of Compliance. A brief submitted under Rule 28.1(e)(2) must comply with Rule 32(a)(7)(C).
 
(f) Time to Serve and File a Brief: Briefs must be served and filed as follows:
   (1) the appellant's principal brief, within 40 days after the record is filed;
   (2) the appellee's principal and response brief, within 30 days after the appellant's principal brief is served;
   (3) the appellant's response and reply brief, within 30 days after the appellee's principal and response brief is served; and
   (4) the appellee's reply brief, within 14 days after the appellant's response and reply brief is served, but at least 7 days before argument unless the court, for good cause, allows a later filing.
 

Rule 29: Brief of an Amicus Curiae

[NOTE: For most current version of this rule, see new amendments that became effective December 1, 2010]

(a) When Permitted: The United States or its officer or agency, or a State, Territory, Commonwealth, or the District of Columbia may file an amicuscuriae brief without the consent of the parties or leave of court. Any other amicus curiae may file a brief only by leave of court or if the brief states that all parties have consented to its filing.
 
(b) Motion for Leave to File: The motion must be accompanied by the proposed brief and state:
   (1) the movant's interest; and
   (2) the reason why an amicus brief is desirable and why the matters asserted are relevant to the disposition of the case.
 
(c) Contents and Form: An amicus brief must comply with Rule 32. In addition to the requirements of Rule 32, the cover must identify the party or parties supported and indicate whether the brief supports affirmance or reversal. If an amicus curiae is a corporation, the brief must include a disclosure statement like that required of parties by Rule 26.1. An amicus brief need not comply with Rule 28, but must include the following:
   (1) a table of contents, with page references;
   (2) a table of authorities — cases (alphabetically arranged), statutes and other authorities — with references to the pages of the brief where they are cited;
   (3) a concise statement of the identity of the amicus curiae, its interest in the case, and the source of its authority to file;
   (4) an argument, which may be preceded by a summary and which need not include a statement of the applicable standard of review; and
   (5) a certificate of compliance, if required by Rule 32(a)(7).
 
(d) Length: Except by the court's permission, an amicus brief may be no more than onehalf the maximum length authorized by these rules for a party's principal brief: If the court grants a party permission to file a longer brief, that extension does not affect the length of an amicus brief.
 
(e) Time for Filing: An amicus curiae must file its brief, accompanied by a motion for filing when necessary, no later than 7 days after the principal brief of the party being supported is filed: An amicus curiae that does not support either party must file its brief no later than 7 days after the appellant's or petitioner's principal brief is filed. A court may grant leave for later filing, specifying the time within which an opposing party may answer.
 
(f) Reply Brief: Except by the court's permission, an amicus curiae may not file a reply brief.
 
(g) Oral Argument: An amicus curiae may participate in oral argument only with the court's permission.
 

Rule 30: Appendix to the Briefs

(a) Appellant's Responsibility.
   (1) Contents of the Appendix. The appellant must prepare and file an appendix to the briefs containing:
      (A) the relevant docket entries in the proceeding below;
      (B) the relevant portions of the pleadings, charge, findings, or opinion;
      (C) the judgment, order, or decision in question; and
      (D) other parts of the record to which the parties wish to direct the court's attention.
   (2) Excluded Material. Memoranda of law in the district court should not be included in the appendix unless they have independent relevance. Parts of the record may be relied on by the court or the parties even though not included in the appendix.
   (3) Time to File; Number of Copies. Unless filing is deferred under Rule 30(c), the appellant must file 10 copies of the appendix with the brief and must serve one copy on counsel for each party separately represented. An unrepresented party proceeding in forma pauperis must file 4 legible copies with the clerk, and one copy must be served on counsel for each separately represented party. The court may by local rule or by order in a particular case require the filing or service of a different number.
 
(b) All Parties' Responsibilities.
   (1) Determining the Contents of the Appendix. The parties are encouraged to agree on the contents of the appendix. In the absence of an agreement, the appellant must, within 14 days after the record is filed, serve on the appellee a designation of the parts of the record the appellant intends to include in the appendix and a statement of the issues the appellant intends to present for review. The appellee may, within 14 days after receiving the designation, serve on the appellant a designation of additional parts to which it wishes to direct the court's attention. The appellant must include the designated parts in the appendix. The parties must not engage in unnecessary designation of parts of the record, because the entire record is available to the court. This paragraph applies also to a crossappellant and a crossappellee.
   (2) Costs of Appendix. Unless the parties agree otherwise, the appellant must pay the cost of the appendix. If the appellant considers parts of the record designated by the appellee to be unnecessary, the appellant may advise the appellee, who must then advance the cost of including those parts. The cost of the appendix is a taxable cost. But if any party causes unnecessary parts of the record to be included in the appendix, the court may impose the cost of those parts on that party. Each circuit must, by local rule, provide for sanctions against attorneys who unreasonably and vexatiously increase litigation costs by including unnecessary material in the appendix.
 
(c) Deferred Appendix.
   (1) Deferral Until After Briefs Are Filed. The court may provide by rule for classes of cases or by order in a particular case that preparation of the appendix may be deferred until after the briefs have been filed and that the appendix may be filed 21 days after the appellee's brief is served. Even though the filing of the appendix may be deferred, Rule 30(b) applies; except that a party must designate the parts of the record it wants included in the appendix when it serves its brief, and need not include a statement of the issues presented.
   (2) References to the Record.
      (A) If the deferred appendix is used, the parties may cite in their briefs the pertinent pages of the record: When the appendix is prepared, the record pages cited in the briefs must be indicated by inserting record page numbers, in brackets, at places in the appendix where those pages of the record appear.
      (B) A party who wants to refer directly to pages of the appendix may serve and file copies of the brief within the time required by Rule 31(a), containing appropriate references to pertinent pages of the record: In that event, within 14 days after the appendix is filed, the party must serve and file copies of the brief, containing references to the pages of the appendix in place of or in addition to the references to the pertinent pages of the record: Except for the correction of typographical errors, no other changes may be made to the brief.
 
(d) Format of the Appendix: The appendix must begin with a table of contents identifying the page at which each part begins. The relevant docket entries must follow the table of contents. Other parts of the record must follow chronologically. When pages from the transcript of proceedings are placed in the appendix, the transcript page numbers must be shown in brackets immediately before the included pages: Omissions in the text of papers or of the transcript must be indicated by asterisks. Immaterial formal matters (captions, subscriptions, acknowledgments, etc.) should be omitted.
 
(e) Reproduction of Exhibits: Exhibits designated for inclusion in the appendix may be reproduced in a separate volume, or volumes, suitably indexed. Four copies must be filed with the appendix, and one copy must be served on counsel for each separately represented party. If a transcript of a proceeding before an administrative agency, board, commission, or officer was used in a districtcourt action and has been designated for inclusion in the appendix, the transcript must be placed in the appendix as an exhibit.
 
(f) Appeal on the Original Record Without an Appendix: The court may, either by rule for all cases or classes of cases or by order in a particular case, dispense with the appendix and permit an appeal to proceed on the original record with any copies of the record, or relevant parts, that the court may order the parties to file.

Rule 31: Serving and Filing Briefs

(a) Time to Serve and File a Brief.
   (1) The appellant must serve and file a brief within 40 days after the record is filed. The appellee must serve and file a brief within 30 days after the appellant's brief is served. The appellant may serve and file a reply brief within 14 days after service of the appellee's brief but a reply brief must be filed at least 7 days before argument, unless the court, for good cause, allows a later filing.
   (2) A court of appeals that routinely considers cases on the merits promptly after the briefs are filed may shorten the time to serve and file briefs, either by local rule or by order in a particular case.
 
(b) Number of Copies: Twentyfive copies of each brief must be filed with the clerk and 2 copies must be served on each unrepresented party and on counsel for each separately represented party. An unrepresented party proceeding in forma pauperis must file 4 legible copies with the clerk, and one copy must be served on each unrepresented party and on counsel for each separately represented party. The court may by local rule or by order in a particular case require the filing or service of a different number.
 
(c) Consequence of Failure to File: If an appellant fails to file a brief within the time provided by this rule, or within an extended time, an appellee may move to dismiss the appeal: An appellee who fails to file a brief will not be heard at oral argument unless the court grants permission.
 

Rule 32: Form of Briefs, Appendices, and Other Papers

(a) Form of a Brief.
   (1) Reproduction.
      (A) A brief may be reproduced by any process that yields a clear black image on light paper. The paper must be opaque and unglazed. Only one side of the paper may be used.
      (B) Text must be reproduced with a clarity that equals or exceeds the output of a laser printer.
      (C) Photographs, illustrations, and tables may be reproduced by any method that results in a good copy of the original; a glossy finish is acceptable if the original is glossy.
   (2) Cover. Except for filings by unrepresented parties, the cover of the appellant's brief must be blue; the appellee's, red; an intervenor's or amicus curiae's, green; and any reply brief, gray; and any supplemental brief, tan. The front cover of a brief must contain:
      (A) the number of the case centered at the top;
      (B) the name of the court;
      (C) the title of the case (see Rule 12(a));
      (D) the nature of the proceeding (e.g., Appeal, Petition for Review) and the name of the court, agency, or board below;
      (E) the title of the brief, identifying the party or parties for whom the brief is filed; and
      (F) the name, office address, and telephone number of counsel representing the party for whom the brief is filed.
   (3) Binding. The brief must be bound in any manner that is secure, does not obscure the text, and permits the brief to lie reasonably flat when open.
   (4) Paper Size, Line Spacing, and Margins. The brief must be on 81/2 by 11 inch paper. The text must be doublespaced, but quotations more than two lines long may be indented and singlespaced: Headings and footnotes may be singlespaced. Margins must be at least one inch on all four sides. Page numbers may be placed in the margins, but no text may appear there.
   (5) Typeface. Either a proportionally spaced or a monospaced face may be used.
      (A) A proportionally spaced face must include serifs, but sansserif type may be used in headings and captions. A proportionally spaced face must be 14point or larger.
      (B) A monospaced face may not contain more than 101/2 characters per inch.
   (6) Type Styles. A brief must be set in a plain, roman style, although italics or boldface may be used for emphasis: Case names must be italicized or underlined.
   (7) Length.
      (A) Page limitation. A principal brief may not exceed 30 pages, or a reply brief 15 pages, unless it complies with Rule 32(a)(7)(B) and (C).
      (B) Typevolume limitation.
         (i) A principal brief is acceptable if:
            : it contains no more than 14,000 words; or
            : it uses a monospaced face and contains no more than 1,300 lines of text.
         (ii) A reply brief is acceptable if it contains no more than half of the type volume specified in Rule 32(a)(7)(B)(i).
         (iii) Headings, footnotes, and quotations count toward the word and line limitations. The corporate disclosure statement, table of contents, table of citations, statement with respect to oral argument, any addendum containing statutes, rules or regulations, and any certificates of counsel do not count toward the limitation.
      (C) Certificate of compliance.
         (i) A brief submitted under Rules 28.1(e)(2) or 32(a)(7)(B) must include a certificate by the attorney, or an unrepresented party, that the brief complies with the typevolume limitation. The person preparing the certificate may rely on the word or line count of the wordprocessing system used to prepare the brief. The certificate must state either:
            : the number of words in the brief; or
            : the number of lines of monospaced type in the brief.
         (ii) Form 6 in the Appendix of Forms is a suggested form of a certificate of compliance. Use of Form 6 must be regarded as sufficient to meet the requirements of Rules 28.1(e)(3) and 32(a)(7)(C)(i).
 
(b) Form of an Appendix: An appendix must comply with Rule 32(a)(1), (2), (3), and (4), with the following exceptions:
   (1) The cover of a separately bound appendix must be white.
   (2) An appendix may include a legible photocopy of any document found in the record or of a printed judicial or agency decision.
   (3) When necessary to facilitate inclusion of oddsized documents such as technical drawings, an appendix may be a size other than 81/2 by 11 inches, and need not lie reasonably flat when opened.
 
(c) Form of Other Papers.
   (1) Motion. The form of a motion is governed by Rule 27(d).
   (2) Other Papers. Any other paper, including a petition for panel rehearing and a petition for hearing or rehearing en banc, and any response to such a petition, must be reproduced in the manner prescribed by Rule 32(a), with the following exceptions:
      (A) A cover is not necessary if the caption and signature page of the paper together contain the information required by Rule 32(a)(2). If a cover is used, it must be white.
      (B) Rule 32(a)(7) does not apply.
 
(d) Signature: Every brief, motion, or other paper filed with the court must be signed by the party filing the paper or, if the party is represented, by one of the party's attorneys.
 
(e) Local Variation: Every court of appeals must accept documents that comply with the form requirements of this rule. By local rule or order in a particular case a court of appeals may accept documents that do not meet all of the form requirements of this rule.
 

Rule 32.1: Citing Judicial Dispositions

(a) Citation Permitted: A court may not prohibit or restrict the citation of federal judicial opinions, orders, judgments, or other written dispositions that have been:
   (i) designated as "unpublished," "not for publication," "nonprecedential," "not precedent," or the like; and
   (ii) issued on or after January 1, 2007.
 
(b) Copies Required: If a party cites a federal judicial opinion, order, judgment, or other written disposition that is not available in a publicly accessible electronic database, the party must file and serve a copy of that opinion, order, judgment, or disposition with the brief or other paper in which it is cited.
 

Rule 33: Appeal Conferences

The court may direct the attorneys — and, when appropriate, the parties — to participate in one or more conferences to address any matter that may aid in disposing of the proceedings, including simplifying the issues and discussing settlement. A judge or other person designated by the court may preside over the conference, which may be conducted in person or by telephone. Before a settlement conference, the attorneys must consult with their clients and obtain as much authority as feasible to settle the case. The court may, as a result of the conference, enter an order controlling the course of the proceedings or implementing any settlement agreement.
 

Rule 34: Oral Argument

(a) In General.
   (1) Party's Statement. Any party may file, or a court may require by local rule, a statement explaining why oral argument should, or need not, be permitted.
   (2) Standards. Oral argument must be allowed in every case unless a panel of three judges who have examined the briefs and record unanimously agrees that oral argument is unnecessary for any of the following reasons:
      (A) the appeal is frivolous;
      (B) the dispositive issue or issues have been authoritatively decided; or
      (C) the facts and legal arguments are adequately presented in the briefs and record, and the decisional process would not be significantly aided by oral argument.
 
(b) Notice of Argument; Postponement: The clerk must advise all parties whether oral argument will be scheduled, and, if so, the date, time, and place for it, and the time allowed for each side. A motion to postpone the argument or to allow longer argument must be filed reasonably in advance of the hearing date.
 
(c) Order and Contents of Argument: The appellant opens and concludes the argument. Counsel must not read at length from briefs, records, or authorities.
 
(d) CrossAppeals and Separate Appeals: If there is a crossappeal, Rule 28.1(b) determines which party is the appellant and which is the appellee for purposes of oral argument. Unless the court directs otherwise, a crossappeal or separate appeal must be argued when the initial appeal is argued. Separate parties should avoid duplicative argument.
 
(e) Nonappearance of a Party: If the appellee fails to appear for argument, the court must hear appellant's argument. If the appellant fails to appear for argument, the court may hear the appellee's argument. If neither party appears, the case will be decided on the briefs, unless the court orders otherwise.
 
(f) Submission on Briefs: The parties may agree to submit a case for decision on the briefs, but the court may direct that the case be argued.
 
(g) Use of Physical Exhibits at Argument; Removal: Counsel intending to use physical exhibits other than documents at the argument must arrange to place them in the courtroom on the day of the argument before the court convenes. After the argument, counsel must remove the exhibits from the courtroom, unless the court directs otherwise. The clerk may destroy or dispose of the exhibits if counsel does not reclaim them within a reasonable time after the clerk gives notice to remove them.
 

Rule 35: En Banc Determination

(a) When Hearing or Rehearing En Banc May Be Ordered: A majority of the circuit judges who are in regular active service and who are not disqualified may order that an appeal or other proceeding be heard or reheard by the court of appeals en banc. An en banc hearing or rehearing is not favored and ordinarily will not be ordered unless:
   (1) en banc consideration is necessary to secure or maintain uniformity of the court's decisions; or
   (2) the proceeding involves a question of exceptional importance.
 
(b) Petition for Hearing or Rehearing En Banc: A party may petition for a hearing or rehearing en banc.
   (1) The petition must begin with a statement that either:
      (A) the panel decision conflicts with a decision of the United States Supreme Court or of the court to which the petition is addressed (with citation to the conflicting case or cases) and consideration by the full court is therefore necessary to secure and maintain uniformity of the court's decisions; or
      (B) the proceeding involves one or more questions of exceptional importance, each of which must be concisely stated; for example, a petition may assert that a proceeding presents a question of exceptional importance if it involves an issue on which the panel decision conflicts with the authoritative decisions of other United States Courts of Appeals that have addressed the issue.
   (2) Except by the court's permission, a petition for an en banc hearing or rehearing must not exceed 15 pages, excluding material not counted under Rule 32.
   (3) For purposes of the page limit in Rule 35(b)(2), if a party files both a petition for panel rehearing and a petition for rehearing en banc, they are considered a single document even if they are filed separately, unless separate filing is required by local rule.
 
(c) Time for Petition for Hearing or Rehearing En Banc: A petition that an appeal be heard initially en banc must be filed by the date when the appellee's brief is due. A petition for a rehearing en banc must be filed within the time prescribed by Rule 40 for filing a petition for rehearing.
 
(d) Number of Copies: The number of copies to be filed must be prescribed by local rule and may be altered by order in a particular case.
 
(e) Response: No response may be filed to a petition for an en banc consideration unless the court orders a response.
 
(f) Call for a Vote: A vote need not be taken to determine whether the case will be heard or reheard en banc unless a judge calls for a vote.
 

Rule 36: Entry of Judgment; Notice

(a) Entry: A judgment is entered when it is noted on the docket: The clerk must prepare, sign, and enter the judgment:
   (1) after receiving the court's opinion — but if settlement of the judgment's form is required, after final settlement; or
   (2) if a judgment is rendered without an opinion, as the court instructs.
 
(b) Notice: On the date when judgment is entered, the clerk must serve on all parties a copy of the opinion — or the judgment, if no opinion was written — and a notice of the date when the judgment was entered.
 

Rule 37: Interest on Judgment

(a) When the Court Affirms: Unless the law provides otherwise, if a money judgment in a civil case is affirmed, whatever interest is allowed by law is payable from the date when the district court's judgment was entered.
 
(b) When the Court Reverses: If the court modifies or reverses a judgment with a direction that a money judgment be entered in the district court, the mandate must contain instructions about the allowance of interest.
 

Rule 38: Frivolous Appeal—Damages and Costs

If a court of appeals determines that an appeal is frivolous, it may, after a separately filed motion or notice from the court and reasonable opportunity to respond, award just damages and single or double costs to the appellee.
 

Rule 39: Costs

(a) Against Whom Assessed: The following rules apply unless the law provides or the court orders otherwise:
   (1) if an appeal is dismissed, costs are taxed against the appellant, unless the parties agree otherwise;
   (2) if a judgment is affirmed, costs are taxed against the appellant;
   (3) if a judgment is reversed, costs are taxed against the appellee;
   (4) if a judgment is affirmed in part, reversed in part, modified, or vacated, costs are taxed only as the court orders.
 
(b) Costs For and Against the United States: Costs for or against the United States, its agency, or officer will be assessed under Rule 39(a) only if authorized by law.
 
(c) Costs of Copies: Each court of appeals must, by local rule, fix the maximum rate for taxing the cost of producing necessary copies of a brief or appendix, or copies of records authorized by Rule 30(f). The rate must not exceed that generally charged for such work in the area where the clerk's office is located and should encourage economical methods of copying.
 
(d) Bill of Costs: Objections; Insertion in Mandate.
   (1) A party who wants costs taxed must — within 14 days after entry of judgment — file with the circuit clerk, with proof of service, an itemized and verified bill of costs.
   (2) Objections must be filed within 14 days after service of the bill of costs, unless the court extends the time.
   (3) The clerk must prepare and certify an itemized statement of costs for insertion in the mandate, but issuance of the mandate must not be delayed for taxing costs. If the mandate issues before costs are finally determined, the district clerk must — upon the circuit clerk's request — add the statement of costs, or any amendment of it, to the mandate.
 
(e) Costs on Appeal Taxable in the District Court: The following costs on appeal are taxable in the district court for the benefit of the party entitled to costs under this rule:
   (1) the preparation and transmission of the record;
   (2) the reporter's transcript, if needed to determine the appeal;
   (3) premiums paid for a supersedeas bond or other bond to preserve rights pending appeal; and
   (4) the fee for filing the notice of appeal.
 

Rule 40: Petition for Panel Rehearing

(a) Time to File; Contents; Answer; Action by the Court if Granted.
   (1) Time. Unless the time is shortened or extended by order or local rule, a petition for panel rehearing may be filed within 14 days after entry of judgment. But in a civil case, if the United States or its officer or agency is a party, the time within which any party may seek rehearing is 45 days after entry of judgment, unless an order shortens or extends the time.
   (2) Contents. The petition must state with particularity each point of law or fact that the petitioner believes the court has overlooked or misapprehended and must argue in support of the petition. Oral argument is not permitted.
   (3) Answer. Unless the court requests, no answer to a petition for panel rehearing is permitted. But ordinarily rehearing will not be granted in the absence of such a request.
   (4) Action by the Court. If a petition for panel rehearing is granted, the court may do any of the following:
      (A) make a final disposition of the case without reargument;
      (B) restore the case to the calendar for reargument or resubmission; or
      (C) issue any other appropriate order.
 
(b) Form of Petition; Length: The petition must comply in form with Rule 32. Copies must be served and filed as Rule 31 prescribes. Unless the court permits or a local rule provides otherwise, a petition for panel rehearing must not exceed 15 pages.
 

Rule 41: Mandate: Contents; Issuance and Effective Date; Stay

(a) Contents: Unless the court directs that a formal mandate issue, the mandate consists of a certified copy of the judgment, a copy of the court's opinion, if any, and any direction about costs.
 
(b) When Issued: The court's mandate must issue 7 days after the time to file a petition for rehearing expires, or 7 days after entry of an order denying a timely petition for panel rehearing, petition for rehearing en banc, or motion for stay of mandate, whichever is later. The court may shorten or extend the time.
 
(c) Effective Date: The mandate is effective when issued.
 
(d) Staying the Mandate.
   (1) On Petition for Rehearing or Motion. The timely filing of a petition for panel rehearing, petition for rehearing en banc, or motion for stay of mandate, stays the mandate until disposition of the petition or motion, unless the court orders otherwise.
   (2) Pending Petition for Certiorari.
      (A) A party may move to stay the mandate pending the filing of a petition for a writ of certiorari in the Supreme Court. The motion must be served on all parties and must show that the certiorari petition would present a substantial question and that there is good cause for a stay.
      (B) The stay must not exceed 90 days, unless the period is extended for good cause or unless the party who obtained the stay files a petition for the writ and so notifies the circuit clerk in writing within the period of the stay: In that case, the stay continues until the Supreme Court's final disposition.
      (C) The court may require a bond or other security as a condition to granting or continuing a stay of the mandate.
      (D) The court of appeals must issue the mandate immediately when a copy of a Supreme Court order denying the petition for writ of certiorari is filed.
 

Rule 42: Voluntary Dismissal

(a) Dismissal in the District Court: Before an appeal has been docketed by the circuit clerk, the district court may dismiss the appeal on the filing of a stipulation signed by all parties or on the appellant's motion with notice to all parties.
 
(b) Dismissal in the Court of Appeals: The circuit clerk may dismiss a docketed appeal if the parties file a signed dismissal agreement specifying how costs are to be paid and pay any fees that are due. But no mandate or other process may issue without a court order. An appeal may be dismissed on the appellant's motion on terms agreed to by the parties or fixed by the court.
 

Rule 43: Substitution of Parties

(a) Death of a Party.
   (1) After Notice of Appeal Is Filed. If a party dies after a notice of appeal has been filed or while a proceeding is pending in the court of appeals, the decedent's personal representative may be substituted as a party on motion filed with the circuit clerk by the representative or by any party: A party's motion must be served on the representative in accordance with Rule 25. If the decedent has no representative, any party may suggest the death on the record, and the court of appeals may then direct appropriate proceedings.
   (2) Before Notice of Appeal Is Filed — Potential Appellant. If a party entitled to appeal dies before filing a notice of appeal, the decedent's personal representative — or, if there is no personal representative, the decedent's attorney of record — may file a notice of appeal within the time prescribed by these rules. After the notice of appeal is filed, substitution must be in accordance with Rule 43(a)(1).
   (3) Before Notice of Appeal Is Filed — Potential Appellee. If a party against whom an appeal may be taken dies after entry of a judgment or order in the district court, but before a notice of appeal is filed, an appellant may proceed as if the death had not occurred. After the notice of appeal is filed, substitution must be in accordance with Rule 43(a)(1).
 
(b) Substitution for a Reason Other Than Death: If a party needs to be substituted for any reason other than death, the procedure prescribed in Rule 43(a) applies.
 
(c) Public Officer: Identification; Substitution.
   (1) Identification of Party. A public officer who is a party to an appeal or other proceeding in an official capacity may be described as a party by the public officer's official title rather than by name. But the court may require the public officer's name to be added.
   (2) Automatic Substitution of Officeholder. When a public officer who is a party to an appeal or other proceeding in an official capacity dies, resigns, or otherwise ceases to hold office, the action does not abate. The public officer's successor is automatically substituted as a party: Proceedings following the substitution are to be in the name of the substituted party, but any misnomer that does not affect the substantial rights of the parties may be disregarded. An order of substitution may be entered at any time, but failure to enter an order does not affect the substitution.
 

Rule 44: Case Involving a Constitutional Question When the United States Is Not a Party

(a) Constitutional Challenge to Federal Statute: If a party questions the constitutionality of an Act of Congress in a proceeding in which the United States or its agency, officer, or employee is not a party in an official capacity, the questioning party must give written notice to the circuit clerk immediately upon the filing of the record or as soon as the question is raised in the court of appeals. The clerk must then certify that fact to the Attorney General.
 
(b) Constitutional Challenge to State Statute: If a party questions the constitutionality of a statute of a State in a proceeding in which that State or its agency, officer, or employee is not a party in an official capacity, the questioning party must give written notice to the circuit clerk immediately upon the filing of the record or as soon as the question is raised in the court of appeals. The clerk must then certify that fact to the attorney general of the State.
 

Rule 45: Clerk's Duties

(a) General Provisions.
   (1) Qualifications. The circuit clerk must take the oath and post any bond required by law. Neither the clerk nor any deputy clerk may practice as an attorney or counselor in any court while in office.
   (2) When Court Is Open. The court of appeals is always open for filing any paper, issuing and returning process, making a motion, and entering an order. The clerk's office with the clerk or a deputy in attendance must be open during business hours on all days except Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. A court may provide by local rule or by order that the clerk's office be open for specified hours on Saturdays or on legal holidays other than New Year's Day, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Birthday, Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans' Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.
 
(b) Records.
   (1) The Docket. The circuit clerk must maintain a docket and an index of all docketed cases in the manner prescribed by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. The clerk must record all papers filed with the clerk and all process, orders, and judgments.
   (2) Calendar. Under the court's direction, the clerk must prepare a calendar of cases awaiting argument. In placing cases on the calendar for argument, the clerk must give preference to appeals in criminal cases and to other proceedings and appeals entitled to preference by law.
   (3) Other Records. The clerk must keep other books and records required by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, with the approval of the Judicial Conference of the United States, or by the court.
 
(c) Notice of an Order or Judgment: Upon the entry of an order or judgment, the circuit clerk must immediately serve a notice of entry on each party, with a copy of any opinion, and must note the date of service on the docket. Service on a party represented by counsel must be made on counsel.
 
(d) Custody of Records and Papers: The circuit clerk has custody of the court's records and papers. Unless the court orders or instructs otherwise, the clerk must not permit an original record or paper to be taken from the clerk's office: Upon disposition of the case, original papers constituting the record on appeal or review must be returned to the court or agency from which they were received. The clerk must preserve a copy of any brief, appendix, or other paper that has been filed.
 

Rule 46: Attorneys

(a) Admission to the Bar.
   (1) Eligibility. An attorney is eligible for admission to the bar of a court of appeals if that attorney is of good moral and professional character and is admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the United States, the highest court of a state, another United States court of appeals, or a United States district court (including the district courts for Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands).
   (2) Application. An applicant must file an application for admission, on a form approved by the court that contains the applicant's personal statement showing eligibility for membership. The applicant must subscribe to the following oath or affirmation:
      "I, ————, do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will conduct myself as an attorney and counselor of this court, uprightly and according to law; and that I will support the Constitution of the United States."
   (3) Admission Procedures. On written or oral motion of a member of the court's bar, the court will act on the application. An applicant may be admitted by oral motion in open court. But, unless the court orders otherwise, an applicant need not appear before the court to be admitted: Upon admission, an applicant must pay the clerk the fee prescribed by local rule or court order.
 
(b) Suspension or Disbarment.
   (1) Standard. A member of the court's bar is subject to suspension or disbarment by the court if the member:
      (A) has been suspended or disbarred from practice in any other court; or
      (B) is guilty of conduct unbecoming a member of the court's bar.
   (2) Procedure. The member must be given an opportunity to show good cause, within the time prescribed by the court, why the member should not be suspended or disbarred.
   (3) Order. The court must enter an appropriate order after the member responds and a hearing is held, if requested, or after the time prescribed for a response expires, if no response is made.
 
(c) Discipline: A court of appeals may discipline an attorney who practices before it for conduct unbecoming a member of the bar or for failure to comply with any court rule. First, however, the court must afford the attorney reasonable notice, an opportunity to show cause to the contrary, and, if requested, a hearing.
 

Rule 47: Local Rules by Courts of Appeals

(a) Local Rules.
   (1) Each court of appeals acting by a majority of its judges in regular active service may, after giving appropriate public notice and opportunity for comment, make and amend rules governing its practice. A generally applicable direction to parties or lawyers regarding practice before a court must be in a local rule rather than an internal operating procedure or standing order. A local rule must be consistent with — but not duplicative of — Acts of Congress and rules adopted under 28 U.S.C. § 2072 and must conform to any uniform numbering system prescribed by the Judicial Conference of the United States: Each circuit clerk must send the Administrative Office of the United States Courts a copy of each local rule and internal operating procedure when it is promulgated or amended.
   (2) A local rule imposing a requirement of form must not be enforced in a manner that causes a party to lose rights because of a nonwillful failure to comply with the requirement.
 
(b) Procedure When There Is No Controlling Law: A court of appeals may regulate practice in a particular case in any manner consistent with federal law, these rules, and local rules of the circuit: No sanction or other disadvantage may be imposed for noncompliance with any requirement not in federal law, federal rules, or the local circuit rules unless the alleged violator has been furnished in the particular case with actual notice of the requirement.
 

Rule 48: Masters

(a) Appointment; Powers: A court of appeals may appoint a special master to hold hearings, if necessary, and to recommend factual findings and disposition in matters ancillary to proceedings in the court: Unless the order referring a matter to a master specifies or limits the master's powers, those powers include, but are not limited to, the following:
   (1) regulating all aspects of a hearing;
   (2) taking all appropriate action for the efficient performance of the master's duties under the order;
   (3) requiring the production of evidence on all matters embraced in the reference; and
   (4) administering oaths and examining witnesses and parties.
 
(b) Compensation: If the master is not a judge or court employee, the court must determine the master's compensation and whether the cost is to be charged to any party.