Statutory Law - US Code - Title 8: Chapter 12: Immigration and Nationality


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U.S. Code Title 8: Aliens and Nationality


Chapter 12: Immigration and Nationality

*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.
**Selected Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law

CHAPTER 12—IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

8 USC § 1101. Definitions

(a) As used in this chapter—
(1) The term “administrator” means the official designated by the Secretary of State pursuant to section 1104(b) of this title.
(2) The term “advocates” includes, but is not limited to, advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in.
(3) The term “alien” means any person not a citizen or national of the United States.
(4) The term “application for admission” has reference to the application for admission into the United States and not to the application for the issuance of an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa.
(5) The term “Attorney General” means the Attorney General of the United States.
(6) The term “border crossing identification card” means a document of identity bearing that designation issued to an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or to an alien who is a resident in foreign contiguous territory, by a consular officer or an immigration officer for the purpose of crossing over the borders between the United States and foreign contiguous territory in accordance with such conditions for its issuance and use as may be prescribed by regulations. Such regulations shall provide that (A) each such document include a biometric identifier (such as the fingerprint or handprint of the alien) that is machine readable and (B) an alien presenting a border crossing identification card is not permitted to cross over the border into the United States unless the biometric identifier contained on the card matches the appropriate biometric characteristic of the alien.
(7) The term “clerk of court” means a clerk of a naturalization court.
(8) The terms “Commissioner” and “Deputy Commissioner” mean the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization and a Deputy Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, respectively.
(9) The term “consular officer” means any consular, diplomatic, or other officer or employee of the United States designated under regulations prescribed under authority contained in this chapter, for the purpose of issuing immigrant or nonimmigrant visas or, when used in subchapter III, for the purpose of adjudicating nationality.
(10) The term “crewman” means a person serving in any capacity on board a vessel or aircraft.
(11) The term “diplomatic visa” means a nonimmigrant visa bearing that title and issued to a nonimmigrant in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe.
(12) The term “doctrine” includes, but is not limited to, policies, practices, purposes, aims, or procedures.
(13)(A) The terms “admission” and “admitted” mean, with respect to an alien, the lawful entry of the alien into the United States after inspection and authorization by an immigration officer.
(B) An alien who is paroled under section 1182(d)(5) of this title or permitted to land temporarily as an alien crewman shall not be considered to have been admitted.
(C) An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States shall not be regarded as seeking an admission into the United States for purposes of the immigration laws unless the alien—
(i) has abandoned or relinquished that status,
(ii) has been absent from the United States for a continuous period in excess of 180 days,
(iii) has engaged in illegal activity after having departed the United States,
(iv) has departed from the United States while under legal process seeking removal of the alien from the United States, including removal proceedings under this chapter and extradition proceedings,
(v) has committed an offense identified in section 1182(a)(2) of this title, unless since such offense the alien has been granted relief under section 1182(h) or 1229b(a) of this title, or
(vi) is attempting to enter at a time or place other than as designated by immigration officers or has not been admitted to the United States after inspection and authorization by an immigration officer.

(14) The term “foreign state” includes outlying possessions of a foreign state, but self-governing dominions or territories under mandate or trusteeship shall be regarded as separate foreign states.
(15) The term “immigrant” means every alien except an alien who is within one of the following classes of nonimmigrant aliens—
(A)(i) an ambassador, public minister, or career diplomatic or consular officer who has been accredited by a foreign government, recognized de jure by the United States and who is accepted by the President or by the Secretary of State, and the members of the alien's immediate family;
(ii) upon a basis of reciprocity, other officials and employees who have been accredited by a foreign government recognized de jure by the United States, who are accepted by the Secretary of State, and the members of their immediate families; and
(iii) upon a basis of reciprocity, attendants, servants, personal employees, and members of their immediate families, of the officials and employees who have a nonimmigrant status under (i) and (ii) above;
(B) an alien (other than one coming for the purpose of study or of performing skilled or unskilled labor or as a representative of foreign press, radio, film, or other foreign information media coming to engage in such vocation) having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning and who is visiting the United States temporarily for business or temporarily for pleasure;
(C) an alien in immediate and continuous transit through the United States, or an alien who qualifies as a person entitled to pass in transit to and from the United Nations Headquarters District and foreign countries, under the provisions of paragraphs (3), (4), and (5) of section 11 of the Headquarters Agreement with the United Nations (61 Stat. 758);
(D)(i) an alien crewman serving in good faith as such in a capacity required for normal operation and service on board a vessel, as defined in section 1288(a) of this title (other than a fishing vessel having its home port or an operating base in the United States), or aircraft, who intends to land temporarily and solely in pursuit of his calling as a crewman and to depart from the United States with the vessel or aircraft on which he arrived or some other vessel or aircraft;
(ii) an alien crewman serving in good faith as such in any capacity required for normal operations and service aboard a fishing vessel having its home port or an operating base in the United States who intends to land temporarily in Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and solely in pursuit of his calling as a crewman and to depart from Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands with the vessel on which he arrived;
(E) an alien entitled to enter the United States under and in pursuance of the provisions of a treaty of commerce and navigation between the United States and the foreign state of which he is a national, and the spouse and children of any such alien if accompanying or following to join him; (i) solely to carry on substantial trade, including trade in services or trade in technology, principally between the United States and the foreign state of which he is a national; (ii) solely to develop and direct the operations of an enterprise in which he has invested, or of an enterprise in which he is actively in the process of investing, a substantial amount of capital; or (iii) solely to perform services in a specialty occupation in the United States if the alien is a national of the Commonwealth of Australia and with respect to whom the Secretary of Labor determines and certifies to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State that the intending employer has filed with the Secretary of Labor an attestation under section 1182(t)(1) of this title;
(F)(i) an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning, who is a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study and who seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing such a course of study consistent with section 1184(l)  of this title at an established college, university, seminary, conservatory, academic high school, elementary school, or other academic institution or in an accredited language training program in the United States, particularly designated by him and approved by the Attorney General after consultation with the Secretary of Education, which institution or place of study shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant student, and if any such institution of learning or place of study fails to make reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn, (ii) the alien spouse and minor children of any alien described in clause (i) if accompanying or following to join such an alien, and (iii) an alien who is a national of Canada or Mexico, who maintains actual residence and place of abode in the country of nationality, who is described in clause (i) except that the alien's qualifications for and actual course of study may be full or part-time, and who commutes to the United States institution or place of study from Canada or Mexico;
(G)(i) a designated principal resident representative of a foreign government recognized de jure by the United States, which foreign government is a member of an international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669) [22 U.S.C. 288 et seq.], accredited resident members of the staff of such representatives, and members of his or their immediate family;
(ii) other accredited representatives of such a foreign government to such international organizations, and the members of their immediate families;
(iii) an alien able to qualify under (i) or (ii) above except for the fact that the government of which such alien is an accredited representative is not recognized de jure by the United States, or that the government of which he is an accredited representative is not a member of such international organization; and the members of his immediate family;
(iv) officers, or employees of such international organizations, and the members of their immediate families;
(v) attendants, servants, and personal employees of any such representative, officer, or employee, and the members of the immediate families of such attendants, servants, and personal employees;
(H) an alien (i) [(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–95, §2(c), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1316] (b) subject to section 1182(j)(2) of this title, who is coming temporarily to the United States to perform services (other than services described in subclause (a) during the period in which such subclause applies and other than services described in subclause (ii)(a) or in subparagraph (O) or (P)) in a specialty occupation described in section 1184(i)(1) of this title or as a fashion model, who meets the requirements for the occupation specified in section 1184(i)(2) of this title or, in the case of a fashion model, is of distinguished merit and ability, and with respect to whom the Secretary of Labor determines and certifies to the Attorney General that the intending employer has filed with the Secretary an application under section 1182(n)(1) of this title, or (b1) who is entitled to enter the United States under and in pursuance of the provisions of an agreement listed in section 1184(g)(8)(A) of this title, who is engaged in a specialty occupation described in section 1184(i)(3) of this title, and with respect to whom the Secretary of Labor determines and certifies to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State that the intending employer has filed with the Secretary of Labor an attestation under section 1182(t)(1) of this title, or (c) who is coming temporarily to the United States to perform services as a registered nurse, who meets the qualifications described in section 1182(m)(1) of this title, and with respect to whom the Secretary of Labor determines and certifies to the Attorney General that an unexpired attestation is on file and in effect under section 1182(m)(2) of this title for the facility (as defined in section 1182(m)(6) of this title) for which the alien will perform the services; or (ii)(a) having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is coming temporarily to the United States to perform agricultural labor or services, as defined by the Secretary of Labor in regulations and including agricultural labor defined in section 3121(g) of title 26, agriculture as defined in section 203(f) of title 29, and the pressing of apples for cider on a farm, of a temporary or seasonal nature, or (b) having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is coming temporarily to the United States to perform other temporary service or labor if unemployed persons capable of performing such service or labor cannot be found in this country, but this clause shall not apply to graduates of medical schools coming to the United States to perform services as members of the medical profession; or (iii) having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is coming temporarily to the United States as a trainee, other than to receive graduate medical education or training, in a training program that is not designed primarily to provide productive employment; and the alien spouse and minor children of any such alien specified in this paragraph if accompanying him or following to join him;
(I) upon a basis of reciprocity, an alien who is a bona fide representative of foreign press, radio, film, or other foreign information media, who seeks to enter the United States solely to engage in such vocation, and the spouse and children of such a representative, if accompanying or following to join him;
(J) an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is a bona fide student, scholar, trainee, teacher, professor, research assistant, specialist, or leader in a field of specialized knowledge or skill, or other person of similar description, who is coming temporarily to the United States as a participant in a program designated by the Director of the United States Information Agency, for the purpose of teaching, instructing or lecturing, studying, observing, conducting research, consulting, demonstrating special skills, or receiving training and who, if he is coming to the United States to participate in a program under which he will receive graduate medical education or training, also meets the requirements of section 1182(j) of this title, and the alien spouse and minor children of any such alien if accompanying him or following to join him;
(K) subject to subsections (d) and (p)  of section 1184 of this title, an alien who—
(i) is the fiancée or fiancé of a citizen of the United States (other than a citizen described in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(viii)(I) of this title) and who seeks to enter the United States solely to conclude a valid marriage with the petitioner within ninety days after admission;
(ii) has concluded a valid marriage with a citizen of the United States (other than a citizen described in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(viii)(I) of this title) who is the petitioner, is the beneficiary of a petition to accord a status under section 1151(b)(2)(A)(i) of this title that was filed under section 1154 of this title by the petitioner, and seeks to enter the United States to await the approval of such petition and the availability to the alien of an immigrant visa; or
(iii) is the minor child of an alien described in clause (i) or (ii) and is accompanying, or following to join, the alien;

(L) subject to section 1184(c)(2) of this title, an alien who, within 3 years preceding the time of his application for admission into the United States, has been employed continuously for one year by a firm or corporation or other legal entity or an affiliate or subsidiary thereof and who seeks to enter the United States temporarily in order to continue to render his services to the same employer or a subsidiary or affiliate thereof in a capacity that is managerial, executive, or involves specialized knowledge, and the alien spouse and minor children of any such alien if accompanying him or following to join him;
(M)(i) an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing a full course of study at an established vocational or other recognized nonacademic institution (other than in a language training program) in the United States particularly designated by him and approved by the Attorney General, after consultation with the Secretary of Education, which institution shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant nonacademic student and if any such institution fails to make reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn, (ii) the alien spouse and minor children of any alien described in clause (i) if accompanying or following to join such an alien, and (iii) an alien who is a national of Canada or Mexico, who maintains actual residence and place of abode in the country of nationality, who is described in clause (i) except that the alien's course of study may be full or part-time, and who commutes to the United States institution or place of study from Canada or Mexico;
(N)(i) the parent of an alien accorded the status of special immigrant under paragraph (27)(I)(i) (or under analogous authority under paragraph (27)(L)), but only if and while the alien is a child, or
(ii) a child of such parent or of an alien accorded the status of a special immigrant under clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of paragraph (27)(I) (or under analogous authority under paragraph (27)(L));
(O) an alien who—
(i) has extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics which has been demonstrated by sustained national or international acclaim or, with regard to motion picture and television productions a demonstrated record of extraordinary achievement, and whose achievements have been recognized in the field through extensive documentation, and seeks to enter the United States to continue work in the area of extraordinary ability; or
(ii)(I) seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of accompanying and assisting in the artistic or athletic performance by an alien who is admitted under clause (i) for a specific event or events,
(II) is an integral part of such actual performance,
(III)(a) has critical skills and experience with such alien which are not of a general nature and which cannot be performed by other individuals, or (b) in the case of a motion picture or television production, has skills and experience with such alien which are not of a general nature and which are critical either based on a pre-existing longstanding working relationship or, with respect to the specific production, because significant production (including pre- and post-production work) will take place both inside and outside the United States and the continuing participation of the alien is essential to the successful completion of the production, and
(IV) has a foreign residence which the alien has no intention of abandoning; or
(iii) is the alien spouse or child of an alien described in clause (i) or (ii) and is accompanying, or following to join, the alien;

(P) an alien having a foreign residence which the alien has no intention of abandoning who—
(i)(a) is described in section 1184(c)(4)(A) of this title (relating to athletes), or (b) is described in section 1184(c)(4)(B) of this title (relating to entertainment groups);
(ii)(I) performs as an artist or entertainer, individually or as part of a group, or is an integral part of the performance of such a group, and
(II) seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of performing as such an artist or entertainer or with such a group under a reciprocal exchange program which is between an organization or organizations in the United States and an organization or organizations in one or more foreign states and which provides for the temporary exchange of artists and entertainers, or groups of artists and entertainers;
(iii)(I) performs as an artist or entertainer, individually or as part of a group, or is an integral part of the performance of such a group, and
(II) seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely to perform, teach, or coach as such an artist or entertainer or with such a group under a commercial or noncommercial program that is culturally unique; or
(iv) is the spouse or child of an alien described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) and is accompanying, or following to join, the alien;

(Q) an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning who is coming temporarily (for a period not to exceed 15 months) to the United States as a participant in an international cultural exchange program approved by the Secretary of Homeland Security for the purpose of providing practical training, employment, and the sharing of the history, culture, and traditions of the country of the alien's nationality and who will be employed under the same wages and working conditions as domestic workers;
(R) an alien, and the spouse and children of the alien if accompanying or following to join the alien, who—
(i) for the 2 years immediately preceding the time of application for admission, has been a member of a religious denomination having a bona fide nonprofit, religious organization in the United States; and
(ii) seeks to enter the United States for a period not to exceed 5 years to perform the work described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of paragraph (27)(C)(ii);

(S) subject to section 1184(k) of this title, an alien—
(i) who the Attorney General determines—
(I) is in possession of critical reliable information concerning a criminal organization or enterprise;
(II) is willing to supply or has supplied such information to Federal or State law enforcement authorities or a Federal or State court; and
(III) whose presence in the United States the Attorney General determines is essential to the success of an authorized criminal investigation or the successful prosecution of an individual involved in the criminal organization or enterprise; or

(ii) who the Secretary of State and the Attorney General jointly determine—
(I) is in possession of critical reliable information concerning a terrorist organization, enterprise, or operation;
(II) is willing to supply or has supplied such information to Federal law enforcement authorities or a Federal court;
(III) will be or has been placed in danger as a result of providing such information; and
(IV) is eligible to receive a reward under section 2708(a) of title 22,

and, if the Attorney General (or with respect to clause (ii), the Secretary of State and the Attorney General jointly) considers it to be appropriate, the spouse, married and unmarried sons and daughters, and parents of an alien described in clause (i) or (ii) if accompanying, or following to join, the alien;
(T)(i) subject to section 1184(o) of this title, an alien who the Secretary of Homeland Security, or in the case of subclause (III)(aa) the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General, determines—
(I) is or has been a victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 7102 of title 22;
(II) is physically present in the United States, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or at a port of entry thereto, on account of such trafficking, including physical presence on account of the alien having been allowed entry into the United States for participation in investigative or judicial processes associated with an act or a perpetrator of trafficking;
(III)(aa) has complied with any reasonable request for assistance in the Federal, State, or local investigation or prosecution of acts of trafficking or the investigation of crime where acts of trafficking are at least one central reason for the commission of that crime;
(bb) in consultation with the Attorney General, as appropriate, is unable to cooperate with a request described in item (aa) due to physical or psychological trauma; or
(cc) has not attained 18 years of age; and
(IV) the alien  would suffer extreme hardship involving unusual and severe harm upon removal; and

(ii) if accompanying, or following to join, the alien described in clause (i)—
(I) in the case of an alien described in clause (i) who is under 21 years of age, the spouse, children, unmarried siblings under 18 years of age on the date on which such alien applied for status under such clause, and parents of such alien;
(II) in the case of an alien described in clause (i) who is 21 years of age or older, the spouse and children of such alien; or
(III) any parent or unmarried sibling under 18 years of age of an alien described in subclause (I) or (II) who the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the law enforcement officer investigating a severe form of trafficking, determines faces a present danger of retaliation as a result of the alien's escape from the severe form of trafficking or cooperation with law enforcement.

(U)(i) subject to section 1184(p) of this title, an alien who files a petition for status under this subparagraph, if the Secretary of Homeland Security determines that—
(I) the alien has suffered substantial physical or mental abuse as a result of having been a victim of criminal activity described in clause (iii);
(II) the alien (or in the case of an alien child under the age of 16, the parent, guardian, or next friend of the alien) possesses information concerning criminal activity described in clause (iii);
(III) the alien (or in the case of an alien child under the age of 16, the parent, guardian, or next friend of the alien) has been helpful, is being helpful, or is likely to be helpful to a Federal, State, or local law enforcement official, to a Federal, State, or local prosecutor, to a Federal or State judge, to the Service, or to other Federal, State, or local authorities investigating or prosecuting criminal activity described in clause (iii); and
(IV) the criminal activity described in clause (iii) violated the laws of the United States or occurred in the United States (including in Indian country and military installations) or the territories and possessions of the United States;

(ii) if accompanying, or following to join, the alien described in clause (i)—
(I) in the case of an alien described in clause (i) who is under 21 years of age, the spouse, children, unmarried siblings under 18 years of age on the date on which such alien applied for status under such clause, and parents of such alien; or
(II) in the case of an alien described in clause (i) who is 21 years of age or older, the spouse and children of such alien; and

(iii) the criminal activity referred to in this clause is that involving one or more of the following or any similar activity in violation of Federal, State, or local criminal law: rape; torture; trafficking; incest; domestic violence; sexual assault; abusive sexual contact; prostitution; sexual exploitation; female genital mutilation; being held hostage; peonage; involuntary servitude; slave trade; kidnapping; abduction; unlawful criminal restraint; false imprisonment; blackmail; extortion; manslaughter; murder; felonious assault; witness tampering; obstruction of justice; perjury; or attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation to commit any of the above mentioned crimes; or
(V) subject to section 1184(q) of this title, an alien who is the beneficiary (including a child of the principal alien, if eligible to receive a visa under section 1153(d) of this title) of a petition to accord a status under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title that was filed with the Attorney General under section 1154 of this title on or before December 21, 2000, if—
(i) such petition has been pending for 3 years or more; or
(ii) such petition has been approved, 3 years or more have elapsed since such filing date, and—
(I) an immigrant visa is not immediately available to the alien because of a waiting list of applicants for visas under section 1153(a)(2)(A) of this title; or
(II) the alien's application for an immigrant visa, or the alien's application for adjustment of status under section 1255 of this title, pursuant to the approval of such petition, remains pending.

(16) The term “immigrant visa” means an immigrant visa required by this chapter and properly issued by a consular officer at his office outside of the United States to an eligible immigrant under the provisions of this chapter.
(17) The term “immigration laws” includes this chapter and all laws, conventions, and treaties of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, deportation, expulsion, or removal of aliens.
(18) The term “immigration officer” means any employee or class of employees of the Service or of the United States designated by the Attorney General, individually or by regulation, to perform the functions of an immigration officer specified by this chapter or any section of this title.
(19) The term “ineligible to citizenship,” when used in reference to any individual, means, notwithstanding the provisions of any treaty relating to military service, an individual who is, or was at any time permanently debarred from becoming a citizen of the United States under section 3(a) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, as amended (54 Stat. 885; 55 Stat. 844), or under section 4(a) of the Selective Service Act of 1948, as amended (62 Stat. 605; 65 Stat. 76) [50 U.S.C. App. 454(a)], or under any section of this chapter, or any other Act, or under any law amendatory of, supplementary to, or in substitution for, any of such sections or Acts.
(20) The term “lawfully admitted for permanent residence” means the status of having been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the immigration laws, such status not having changed.
(21) The term “national” means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state.
(22) The term “national of the United States” means (A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States.
(23) The term “naturalization” means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever.
(24) Repealed. Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §305(m)(1), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1750.
(25) The term “noncombatant service” shall not include service in which the individual is not subject to military discipline, court martial, or does not wear the uniform of any branch of the armed forces.
(26) The term “nonimmigrant visa” means a visa properly issued to an alien as an eligible nonimmigrant by a competent officer as provided in this chapter.
(27) The term “special immigrant” means—
(A) an immigrant, lawfully admitted for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad;
(B) an immigrant who was a citizen of the United States and may, under section 1435(a) or 1438 of this title, apply for reacquisition of citizenship;
(C) an immigrant, and the immigrant's spouse and children if accompanying or following to join the immigrant, who—
(i) for at least 2 years immediately preceding the time of application for admission, has been a member of a religious denomination having a bona fide nonprofit, religious organization in the United States;
(ii) seeks to enter the United States—
(I) solely for the purpose of carrying on the vocation of a minister of that religious denomination,
(II) before September 30, 2012, in order to work for the organization at the request of the organization in a professional capacity in a religious vocation or occupation, or
(III) before September 30, 2012, in order to work for the organization (or for a bona fide organization which is affiliated with the religious denomination and is exempt from taxation as an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26) at the request of the organization in a religious vocation or occupation; and

(iii) has been carrying on such vocation, professional work, or other work continuously for at least the 2-year period described in clause (i);

(D) an immigrant who is an employee, or an honorably retired former employee, of the United States Government abroad, or of the American Institute in Taiwan, and who has performed faithful service for a total of fifteen years, or more, and his accompanying spouse and children: Provided, That the principal officer of a Foreign Service establishment (or, in the case of the American Institute in Taiwan, the Director thereof), in his discretion, shall have recommended the granting of special immigrant status to such alien in exceptional circumstances and the Secretary of State approves such recommendation and finds that it is in the national interest to grant such status;
(E) an immigrant, and his accompanying spouse and children, who is or has been an employee of the Panama Canal Company or Canal Zone Government before the date on which the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 (as described in section 3602(a)(1) of title 22) enters into force [October 1, 1979], who was resident in the Canal Zone on the effective date of the exchange of instruments of ratification of such Treaty [April 1, 1979], and who has performed faithful service as such an employee for one year or more;
(F) an immigrant, and his accompanying spouse and children, who is a Panamanian national and (i) who, before the date on which such Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 enters into force [October 1, 1979], has been honorably retired from United States Government employment in the Canal Zone with a total of 15 years or more of faithful service, or (ii) who, on the date on which such Treaty enters into force, has been employed by the United States Government in the Canal Zone with a total of 15 years or more of faithful service and who subsequently is honorably retired from such employment or continues to be employed by the United States Government in an area of the former Canal Zone;
(G) an immigrant, and his accompanying spouse and children, who was an employee of the Panama Canal Company or Canal Zone Government on the effective date of the exchange of instruments of ratification of such Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 [April 1, 1979], who has performed faithful service for five years or more as such an employee, and whose personal safety, or the personal safety of whose spouse or children, as a direct result of such Treaty, is reasonably placed in danger because of the special nature of any of that employment;
(H) an immigrant, and his accompanying spouse and children, who—
(i) has graduated from a medical school or has qualified to practice medicine in a foreign state,
(ii) was fully and permanently licensed to practice medicine in a State on January 9, 1978, and was practicing medicine in a State on that date,
(iii) entered the United States as a nonimmigrant under subsection (a)(15)(H) or (a)(15)(J) of this section before January 10, 1978, and
(iv) has been continuously present in the United States in the practice or study of medicine since the date of such entry;

(I)(i) an immigrant who is the unmarried son or daughter of an officer or employee, or of a former officer or employee, of an international organization described in paragraph (15)(G)(i), and who (I) while maintaining the status of a nonimmigrant under paragraph (15)(G)(iv) or paragraph (15)(N), has resided and been physically present in the United States for periods totaling at least one-half of the seven years before the date of application for a visa or for adjustment of status to a status under this subparagraph and for a period or periods aggregating at least seven years between the ages of five and 21 years, and (II) applies for a visa or adjustment of status under this subparagraph no later than his twenty-fifth birthday or six months after October 24, 1988, whichever is later;
(ii) an immigrant who is the surviving spouse of a deceased officer or employee of such an international organization, and who (I) while maintaining the status of a nonimmigrant under paragraph (15)(G)(iv) or paragraph (15)(N), has resided and been physically present in the United States for periods totaling at least one-half of the seven years before the date of application for a visa or for adjustment of status to a status under this subparagraph and for a period or periods aggregating at least 15 years before the date of the death of such officer or employee, and (II) files a petition for status under this subparagraph no later than six months after the date of such death or six months after October 24, 1988, whichever is later;
(iii) an immigrant who is a retired officer or employee of such an international organization, and who (I) while maintaining the status of a nonimmigrant under paragraph (15)(G)(iv), has resided and been physically present in the United States for periods totaling at least one-half of the seven years before the date of application for a visa or for adjustment of status to a status under this subparagraph and for a period or periods aggregating at least 15 years before the date of the officer or employee's retirement from any such international organization, and (II) files a petition for status under this subparagraph no later than six months after the date of such retirement or six months after October 25, 1994, whichever is later; or
(iv) an immigrant who is the spouse of a retired officer or employee accorded the status of special immigrant under clause (iii), accompanying or following to join such retired officer or employee as a member of his immediate family;
(J) an immigrant who is present in the United States—
(i) who has been declared dependent on a juvenile court located in the United States or whom such a court has legally committed to, or placed under the custody of, an agency or department of a State, or an individual or entity appointed by a State or juvenile court located in the United States, and whose reunification with 1 or both of the immigrant's parents is not viable due to abuse, neglect, abandonment, or a similar basis found under State law;
(ii) for whom it has been determined in administrative or judicial proceedings that it would not be in the alien's best interest to be returned to the alien's or parent's previous country of nationality or country of last habitual residence; and
(iii) in whose case the Secretary of Homeland Security consents to the grant of special immigrant juvenile status, except that—
(I) no juvenile court has jurisdiction to determine the custody status or placement of an alien in the custody of the Secretary of Health and Human Services unless the Secretary of Health and Human Services specifically consents to such jurisdiction; and
(II) no natural parent or prior adoptive parent of any alien provided special immigrant status under this subparagraph shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this chapter;

(K) an immigrant who has served honorably on active duty in the Armed Forces of the United States after October 15, 1978, and after original lawful enlistment outside the United States (under a treaty or agreement in effect on October 1, 1991) for a period or periods aggregating—
(i) 12 years and who, if separated from such service, was never separated except under honorable conditions, or
(ii) 6 years, in the case of an immigrant who is on active duty at the time of seeking special immigrant status under this subparagraph and who has reenlisted to incur a total active duty service obligation of at least 12 years,

and the spouse or child of any such immigrant if accompanying or following to join the immigrant, but only if the executive department under which the immigrant serves or served recommends the granting of special immigrant status to the immigrant;
(L) an immigrant who would be described in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (I) if any reference in such a clause—
(i) to an international organization described in paragraph (15)(G)(i) were treated as a reference to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO);
(ii) to a nonimmigrant under paragraph (15)(G)(iv) were treated as a reference to a nonimmigrant classifiable under NATO–6 (as a member of a civilian component accompanying a force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces Agreement, a member of a civilian component attached to or employed by an Allied Headquarters under the “Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters” set up pursuant to the North Atlantic Treaty, or as a dependent); and
(iii) to the Immigration Technical Corrections Act of 1988 or to the Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 were a reference to the American Competitiveness and Workforce Improvement Act of 1998

(M) subject to the numerical limitations of section 1153(b)(4) of this title, an immigrant who seeks to enter the United States to work as a broadcaster in the United States for the International Broadcasting Bureau of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or for a grantee of the Broadcasting Board of Governors, and the immigrant's accompanying spouse and children.

(28) The term “organization” means, but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund; and includes a group of persons, whether or not incorporated, permanently or temporarily associated together with joint action on any subject or subjects.
(29) The term “outlying possessions of the United States” means American Samoa and Swains Island.
(30) The term “passport” means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country.
(31) The term “permanent” means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law.
(32) The term “profession” shall include but not be limited to architects, engineers, lawyers, physicians, surgeons, and teachers in elementary or secondary schools, colleges, academies, or seminaries.
(33) The term “residence” means the place of general abode; the place of general abode of a person means his principal, actual dwelling place in fact, without regard to intent.
(34) The term “Service” means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice.
(35) The term “spouse”, “wife”, or “husband” do not include a spouse, wife, or husband by reason of any marriage ceremony where the contracting parties thereto are not physically present in the presence of each other, unless the marriage shall have been consummated.
(36) The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
(37) The term “totalitarian party” means an organization which advocates the establishment in the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship or totalitarianism. The terms “totalitarian dictatorship” and “totalitarianism” mean and refer to systems of government not representative in fact, characterized by (A) the existence of a single political party, organized on a dictatorial basis, with so close an identity between such party and its policies and the governmental policies of the country in which it exists, that the party and the government constitute an indistinguishable unit, and (B) the forcible suppression of opposition to such party.
(38) The term “United States”, except as otherwise specifically herein provided, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
(39) The term “unmarried”, when used in reference to any individual as of any time, means an individual who at such time is not married, whether or not previously married.
(40) The term “world communism” means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist political movement.
(41) The term “graduates of a medical school” means aliens who have graduated from a medical school or who have qualified to practice medicine in a foreign state, other than such aliens who are of national or international renown in the field of medicine.
(42) The term “refugee” means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. The term “refugee” does not include any person who ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. For purposes of determinations under this chapter, a person who has been forced to abort a pregnancy or to undergo involuntary sterilization, or who has been persecuted for failure or refusal to undergo such a procedure or for other resistance to a coercive population control program, shall be deemed to have been persecuted on account of political opinion, and a person who has a well founded fear that he or she will be forced to undergo such a procedure or subject to persecution for such failure, refusal, or resistance shall be deemed to have a well founded fear of persecution on account of political opinion.
(43) The term “aggravated felony” means—
(A) murder, rape, or sexual abuse of a minor;
(B) illicit trafficking in a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21), including a drug trafficking crime (as defined in section 924(c) of title 18);
(C) illicit trafficking in firearms or destructive devices (as defined in section 921 of title 18) or in explosive materials (as defined in section 841(c) of that title);
(D) an offense described in section 1956 of title 18 (relating to laundering of monetary instruments) or section 1957 of that title (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specific unlawful activity) if the amount of the funds exceeded $10,000;
(E) an offense described in—
(i) section 842(h) or (i) of title 18, or section 844(d), (e), (f), (g), (h), or (i) of that title (relating to explosive materials offenses);
(ii) section 922(g)(1), (2), (3), (4), or (5), (j), (n), (o), (p), or (r) or 924(b) or (h) of title 18 (relating to firearms offenses); or
(iii) section 5861 of title 26 (relating to firearms offenses);

(F) a crime of violence (as defined in section 16 of title 18, but not including a purely political offense) for which the term of imprisonment at  least one year;
(G) a theft offense (including receipt of stolen property) or burglary offense for which the term of imprisonment at  least one year;
(H) an offense described in section 875, 876, 877, or 1202 of title 18 (relating to the demand for or receipt of ransom);
(I) an offense described in section 2251, 2251A, or 2252 of title 18 (relating to child pornography);
(J) an offense described in section 1962 of title 18 (relating to racketeer influenced corrupt organizations), or an offense described in section 1084 (if it is a second or subsequent offense) or 1955 of that title (relating to gambling offenses), for which a sentence of one year imprisonment or more may be imposed;
(K) an offense that—
(i) relates to the owning, controlling, managing, or supervising of a prostitution business;
(ii) is described in section 2421, 2422, or 2423 of title 18 (relating to transportation for the purpose of prostitution) if committed for commercial advantage; or
(iii) is described in any of sections 1581–1585 or 1588–1591 of title 18 (relating to peonage, slavery, involuntary servitude, and trafficking in persons);

(L) an offense described in—
(i) section 793 (relating to gathering or transmitting national defense information), 798 (relating to disclosure of classified information), 2153 (relating to sabotage) or 2381 or 2382 (relating to treason) of title 18;
(ii) section 421 of title 50 (relating to protecting the identity of undercover intelligence agents); or
(iii) section 421 of title 50 (relating to protecting the identity of undercover agents);

(M) an offense that—
(i) involves fraud or deceit in which the loss to the victim or victims exceeds $10,000; or
(ii) is described in section 7201 of title 26 (relating to tax evasion) in which the revenue loss to the Government exceeds $10,000;

(N) an offense described in paragraph (1)(A) or (2) of section 1324(a) of this title (relating to alien smuggling), except in the case of a first offense for which the alien has affirmatively shown that the alien committed the offense for the purpose of assisting, abetting, or aiding only the alien's spouse, child, or parent (and no other individual) to violate a provision of this chapter
(O) an offense described in section 1325(a) or 1326 of this title committed by an alien who was previously deported on the basis of a conviction for an offense described in another subparagraph of this paragraph;
(P) an offense (i) which either is falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering a passport or instrument in violation of section 1543 of title 18 or is described in section 1546(a) of such title (relating to document fraud) and (ii) for which the term of imprisonment is at least 12 months, except in the case of a first offense for which the alien has affirmatively shown that the alien committed the offense for the purpose of assisting, abetting, or aiding only the alien's spouse, child, or parent (and no other individual) to violate a provision of this chapter;
(Q) an offense relating to a failure to appear by a defendant for service of sentence if the underlying offense is punishable by imprisonment for a term of 5 years or more;
(R) an offense relating to commercial bribery, counterfeiting, forgery, or trafficking in vehicles the identification numbers of which have been altered for which the term of imprisonment is at least one year;
(S) an offense relating to obstruction of justice, perjury or subornation of perjury, or bribery of a witness, for which the term of imprisonment is at least one year;
(T) an offense relating to a failure to appear before a court pursuant to a court order to answer to or dispose of a charge of a felony for which a sentence of 2 years’ imprisonment or more may be imposed; and
(U) an attempt or conspiracy to commit an offense described in this paragraph.

The term applies to an offense described in this paragraph whether in violation of Federal or State law and applies to such an offense in violation of the law of a foreign country for which the term of imprisonment was completed within the previous 15 years. Notwithstanding any other provision of law (including any effective date), the term applies regardless of whether the conviction was entered before, on, or after September 30, 1996.
(44)(A) The term “managerial capacity” means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily—
(i) manages the organization, or a department, subdivision, function, or component of the organization;
(ii) supervises and controls the work of other supervisory, professional, or managerial employees, or manages an essential function within the organization, or a department or subdivision of the organization;
(iii) if another employee or other employees are directly supervised, has the authority to hire and fire or recommend those as well as other personnel actions (such as promotion and leave authorization) or, if no other employee is directly supervised, functions at a senior level within the organizational hierarchy or with respect to the function managed; and
(iv) exercises discretion over the day-to-day operations of the activity or function for which the employee has authority.

A first-line supervisor is not considered to be acting in a managerial capacity merely by virtue of the supervisor's supervisory duties unless the employees supervised are professional.
(B) The term “executive capacity” means an assignment within an organization in which the employee primarily—
(i) directs the management of the organization or a major component or function of the organization;
(ii) establishes the goals and policies of the organization, component, or function;
(iii) exercises wide latitude in discretionary decision-making; and
(iv) receives only general supervision or direction from higher level executives, the board of directors, or stockholders of the organization.

(C) If staffing levels are used as a factor in determining whether an individual is acting in a managerial or executive capacity, the Attorney General shall take into account the reasonable needs of the organization, component, or function in light of the overall purpose and stage of development of the organization, component, or function. An individual shall not be considered to be acting in a managerial or executive capacity (as previously defined) merely on the basis of the number of employees that the individual supervises or has supervised or directs or has directed.
(45) The term “substantial” means, for purposes of paragraph (15)(E) with reference to trade or capital, such an amount of trade or capital as is established by the Secretary of State, after consultation with appropriate agencies of Government.
(46) The term “extraordinary ability” means, for purposes of subsection (a)(15)(O)(i) of this section, in the case of the arts, distinction.
(47)(A) The term “order of deportation” means the order of the special inquiry officer, or other such administrative officer to whom the Attorney General has delegated the responsibility for determining whether an alien is deportable, concluding that the alien is deportable or ordering deportation.
(B) The order described under subparagraph (A) shall become final upon the earlier of—
(i) a determination by the Board of Immigration Appeals affirming such order; or
(ii) the expiration of the period in which the alien is permitted to seek review of such order by the Board of Immigration Appeals.

(48)(A) The term “conviction” means, with respect to an alien, a formal judgment of guilt of the alien entered by a court or, if adjudication of guilt has been withheld, where—
(i) a judge or jury has found the alien guilty or the alien has entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or has admitted sufficient facts to warrant a finding of guilt, and
(ii) the judge has ordered some form of punishment, penalty, or restraint on the alien's liberty to be imposed.

(B) Any reference to a term of imprisonment or a sentence with respect to an offense is deemed to include the period of incarceration or confinement ordered by a court of law regardless of any suspension of the imposition or execution of that imprisonment or sentence in whole or in part.
(49) The term “stowaway” means any alien who obtains transportation without the consent of the owner, charterer, master or person in command of any vessel or aircraft through concealment aboard such vessel or aircraft. A passenger who boards with a valid ticket is not to be considered a stowaway.
(50) The term “intended spouse” means any alien who meets the criteria set forth in section 1154(a)(1)(A)(iii)(II)(aa)(BB), 1154(a)(1)(B)(ii)(II)(aa)(BB), or 1229b(b)(2)(A)(i)(III) of this title.
(51) The term “VAWA self-petitioner” means an alien, or a child of the alien, who qualifies for relief under—
(A) clause (iii), (iv), or (vii) of section 1154(a)(1)(A) of this title;
(B) clause (ii) or (iii) of section 1154(a)(1)(B) of this title;
(C) section 1186a(c)(4)(C) of this title;
(D) the first section of Public Law 89–732 (8 U.S.C. 1255 note) (commonly known as the Cuban Adjustment Act) as a child or spouse who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty;
(E) section 902(d)(1)(B) of the Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act of 1998 (8 U.S.C. 1255 note);
(F) section 202(d)(1) of the Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act; or
(G) section 309 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (division C of Public Law 104–208).

(52) The term “accredited language training program” means a language training program that is accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the Secretary of Education.
(b) As used in subchapters I and II—
(1) The term “child” means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is—
(A) a child born in wedlock;
(B) a stepchild, whether or not born out of wedlock, provided the child had not reached the age of eighteen years at the time the marriage creating the status of stepchild occurred;
(C) a child legitimated under the law of the child's residence or domicile, or under the law of the father's residence or domicile, whether in or outside the United States, if such legitimation takes place before the child reaches the age of eighteen years and the child is in the legal custody of the legitimating parent or parents at the time of such legitimation;
(D) a child born out of wedlock, by, through whom, or on whose behalf a status, privilege, or benefit is sought by virtue of the relationship of the child to its natural mother or to its natural father if the father has or had a bona fide parent-child relationship with the person;
(E)(i) a child adopted while under the age of sixteen years if the child has been in the legal custody of, and has resided with, the adopting parent or parents for at least two years or if the child has been battered or subject to extreme cruelty by the adopting parent or by a family member of the adopting parent residing in the same household: Provided, That no natural parent of any such adopted child shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this chapter; or
(ii) subject to the same proviso as in clause (i), a child who: (I) is a natural sibling of a child described in clause (i) or subparagraph (F)(i); (II) was adopted by the adoptive parent or parents of the sibling described in such clause or subparagraph; and (III) is otherwise described in clause (i), except that the child was adopted while under the age of 18 years;
(F)(i) a child, under the age of sixteen at the time a petition is filed in his behalf to accord a classification as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title, who is an orphan because of the death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, or separation or loss from, both parents, or for whom the sole or surviving parent is incapable of providing the proper care and has in writing irrevocably released the child for emigration and adoption; who has been adopted abroad by a United States citizen and spouse jointly, or by an unmarried United States citizen at least twenty-five years of age, who personally saw and observed the child prior to or during the adoption proceedings; or who is coming to the United States for adoption by a United States citizen and spouse jointly, or by an unmarried United States citizen at least twenty-five years of age, who have or has complied with the preadoption requirements, if any, of the child's proposed residence; Provided, That the Attorney General is satisfied that proper care will be furnished the child if admitted to the United States: Provided further, That no natural parent or prior adoptive parent of any such child shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this chapter; or
(ii) subject to the same provisos as in clause (i), a child who: (I) is a natural sibling of a child described in clause (i) or subparagraph (E)(i); (II) has been adopted abroad, or is coming to the United States for adoption, by the adoptive parent (or prospective adoptive parent) or parents of the sibling described in such clause or subparagraph; and (III) is otherwise described in clause (i), except that the child is under the age of 18 at the time a petition is filed in his or her behalf to accord a classification as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title; or
(G)(i) a child, younger than 16 years of age at the time a petition is filed on the child's behalf to accord a classification as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title, who has been adopted in a foreign state that is a party to the Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption, done at The Hague on May 29, 1993, or who is emigrating from such a foreign state to be adopted in the United States by a United States citizen and spouse jointly or by an unmarried United States citizen who is at least 25 years of age, Provided, That—
(I) the Secretary of Homeland Security is satisfied that proper care will be furnished the child if admitted to the United States;
(II) the child's natural parents (or parent, in the case of a child who has one sole or surviving parent because of the death or disappearance of, abandonment or desertion by, the other parent), or other persons or institutions that retain legal custody of the child, have freely given their written irrevocable consent to the termination of their legal relationship with the child, and to the child's emigration and adoption;
(III) in the case of a child having two living natural parents, the natural parents are incapable of providing proper care for the child;
(IV) the Secretary of Homeland Security is satisfied that the purpose of the adoption is to form a bona fide parent-child relationship, and the parent-child relationship of the child and the natural parents has been terminated (and in carrying out both obligations under this subclause the Secretary of Homeland Security may consider whether there is a petition pending to confer immigrant status on one or both of such natural parents); and
(V) in the case of a child who has not been adopted—
(aa) the competent authority of the foreign state has approved the child's emigration to the United States for the purpose of adoption by the prospective adoptive parent or parents; and
(bb) the prospective adoptive parent or parents has or have complied with any pre-adoption requirements of the child's proposed residence; and

(ii) except that no natural parent or prior adoptive parent of any such child shall thereafter, by virtue of such parentage, be accorded any right, privilege, or status under this chapter; or
(iii) subject to the same provisos as in clauses (i) and (ii), a child who—
(I) is a natural sibling of a child described in clause (i), subparagraph (E)(i), or subparagraph (F)(i);
(II) was adopted abroad, or is coming to the United States for adoption, by the adoptive parent (or prospective adoptive parent) or parents of the sibling described in clause (i), subparagraph (E)(i), or subparagraph (F)(i); and
(III) is otherwise described in clause (i), except that the child is younger than 18 years of age at the time a petition is filed on his or her behalf for classification as an immediate relative under section 1151(b) of this title.

(2) The terms “parent”, “father”, or “mother” mean a parent, father, or mother only where the relationship exists by reason of any of the circumstances set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection, except that, for purposes of paragraph (1)(F) (other than the second proviso therein) and paragraph (1)(G)(i) in the case of a child born out of wedlock described in paragraph (1)(D) (and not described in paragraph (1)(C)), the term “parent” does not include the natural father of the child if the father has disappeared or abandoned or deserted the child or if the father has in writing irrevocably released the child for emigration and adoption.
(3) The term “person” means an individual or an organization.
(4) The term “immigration judge” means an attorney whom the Attorney General appoints as an administrative judge within the Executive Office for Immigration Review, qualified to conduct specified classes of proceedings, including a hearing under section 1229a of this title. An immigration judge shall be subject to such supervision and shall perform such duties as the Attorney General shall prescribe, but shall not be employed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
(5) The term “adjacent islands” includes Saint Pierre, Miquelon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Bermuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica, the Windward and Leeward Islands, Trinidad, Martinique, and other British, French, and Netherlands territory or possessions in or bordering on the Caribbean Sea.
(c) As used in subchapter III—
(1) The term “child” means an unmarried person under twenty-one years of age and includes a child legitimated under the law of the child's residence or domicile, or under the law of the father's residence or domicile, whether in the United States or elsewhere, and, except as otherwise provided in sections 1431 and 1432  of this title, a child adopted in the United States, if such legitimation or adoption takes place before the child reaches the age of 16 years (except to the extent that the child is described in subparagraph (E)(ii) or (F)(ii) of subsection (b)(1) of this section), and the child is in the legal custody of the legitimating or adopting parent or parents at the time of such legitimation or adoption.
(2) The terms “parent”, “father”, and “mother” include in the case of a posthumous child a deceased parent, father, and mother.
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–525, §9(a)(3), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619.
(e) For the purposes of this chapter—
(1) The giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or any other thing of value to be used for advocating any doctrine shall constitute the advocating of such doctrine; but nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as an exclusive definition of advocating.
(2) The giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or any other thing of value for any purpose to any organization shall be presumed to constitute affiliation therewith; but nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as an exclusive definition of affiliation.
(3) Advocating the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism means advocating the establishment of a totalitarian Communist dictatorship in any or all of the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist movement.
(f) For the purposes of this chapter—
No person shall be regarded as, or found to be, a person of good moral character who, during the period for which good moral character is required to be established is, or was—
(1) a habitual drunkard;
(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 97–116, §2(c)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1611.
(3) a member of one or more of the classes of persons, whether inadmissible or not, described in paragraphs (2)(D), (6)(E), and (10)(A) of section 1182(a) of this title; or subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 1182(a)(2) of this title and subparagraph (C) thereof of such section  (except as such paragraph relates to a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marihuana), if the offense described therein, for which such person was convicted or of which he admits the commission, was committed during such period;
(4) one whose income is derived principally from illegal gambling activities;
(5) one who has been convicted of two or more gambling offenses committed during such period;
(6) one who has given false testimony for the purpose of obtaining any benefits under this chapter;
(7) one who during such period has been confined, as a result of conviction, to a penal institution for an aggregate period of one hundred and eighty days or more, regardless of whether the offense, or offenses, for which he has been confined were committed within or without such period;
(8) one who at any time has been convicted of an aggravated felony (as defined in subsection (a)(43) of this section); or
(9) one who at any time has engaged in conduct described in section 1182(a)(3)(E) of this title (relating to assistance in Nazi persecution, participation in genocide, or commission of acts of torture or extrajudicial killings) or 1182(a)(2)(G) of this title (relating to severe violations of religious freedom).

The fact that any person is not within any of the foregoing classes shall not preclude a finding that for other reasons such person is or was not of good moral character. In the case of an alien who makes a false statement or claim of citizenship, or who registers to vote or votes in a Federal, State, or local election (including an initiative, recall, or referendum) in violation of a lawful restriction of such registration or voting to citizens, if each natural parent of the alien (or, in the case of an adopted alien, each adoptive parent of the alien) is or was a citizen (whether by birth or naturalization), the alien permanently resided in the United States prior to attaining the age of 16, and the alien reasonably believed at the time of such statement, claim, or violation that he or she was a citizen, no finding that the alien is, or was, not of good moral character may be made based on it.
(g) For the purposes of this chapter any alien ordered deported or removed (whether before or after the enactment of this chapter) who has left the United States, shall be considered to have been deported or removed in pursuance of law, irrespective of the source from which the expenses of his transportation were defrayed or of the place to which he departed.
(h) For purposes of section 1182(a)(2)(E) of this title, the term “serious criminal offense” means—
(1) any felony;
(2) any crime of violence, as defined in section 16 of title 18; or
(3) any crime of reckless driving or of driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol or of prohibited substances if such crime involves personal injury to another.

(i) With respect to each nonimmigrant alien described in subsection (a)(15)(T)(i) of this section—
(1) the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Attorney General, and other Government officials, where appropriate, shall provide the alien with a referral to a nongovernmental organization that would advise the alien regarding the alien's options while in the United States and the resources available to the alien; and
(2) the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, during the period the alien is in lawful temporary resident status under that subsection, grant the alien authorization to engage in employment in the United States and provide the alien with an “employment authorized” endorsement or other appropriate work permit.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title I, §101, 66 Stat. 166; Pub. L. 85–316, §§1, 2, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 85–508, §22, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 86–3, §20(a), Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 13; Pub. L. 87–256, §109(a), (b), Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 534; Pub. L. 87–301, §§1, 2, 7, Sept. 26, 1961, 75 Stat. 650, 653; Pub. L. 89–236, §§8, 24, Oct. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 916, 922; Pub. L. 89–710, Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1104; Pub. L. 91–225, §1, Apr. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 116; Pub. L. 94–155, Dec. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 824; Pub. L. 94–484, title VI, §601(b), (e), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2301, 2302; Pub. L. 94–571, §7(a), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2706; Pub. L. 94–484, title VI, §602(c), Oct. 12, 1976, as added Pub. L. 95–83, title III, §307(q)(3), Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 395; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(b)(3), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3201(a), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 496; Pub. L. 96–212, title II, §201(a), Mar. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 102; Pub. L. 97–116, §§2, 5(d)(1), 18(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1611, 1614, 1619; Priv. L. 98–47, §3, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3435; Pub. L. 99–505, §1, Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1806; Pub. L. 99–603, title III, §§301(a), 312, 315(a), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3411, 3434, 3439; Pub. L. 99–653, §§2, 3, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3655; Pub. L. 100–459, title II, §210(a), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2203; Pub. L. 100–525, §§2(o)(1), 8(b), 9(a), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2613, 2617, 2619; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7342, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4469; Pub. L. 101–162, title VI, §611(a), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1038; Pub. L. 101–238, §3(a), Dec. 18, 1989, 103 Stat. 2100; Pub. L. 101–246, title I, §131(b), Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 31; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §§123, 151(a), 153(a), 162(f)(2)(A), title II, §§203(c), 204(a), (c), 205(c)(1), (d), (e), 206(c), 207(a), 208, 209(a), title IV, §407(a)(2), title V, §§501(a), 509(a), title VI, §603(a)(1), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4995, 5004, 5005, 5012, 5018–5020, 5022, 5023, 5026, 5027, 5040, 5048, 5051, 5082; Pub. L. 102–110, §2(a), Oct. 1, 1991, 105 Stat. 555; Pub. L. 102–232, title II, §§203(a), 205(a)–(c), 206(b), (c)(1), (d), 207(b), title III, §§302(e)(8)(A), 303(a)(5)(A), (7)(A), (14), 305(m)(1), 306(a)(1), 309(b)(1), (4), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1737, 1740, 1741, 1746–1748, 1750, 1751, 1758; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(h)(1), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 407; Pub. L. 103–322, title XIII, §130003(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2024; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXVI, §3605, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3113; Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §§201, 202, 214, 219(a), 222(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4310, 4311, 4314, 4316, 4320; Pub. L. 104–51, §1, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 467; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §440(b), (e), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1277; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, §104(a), title III, §§301(a), 308(d)(3)(A), (4)(A), (e)(3), (f)(1)(A), (B), 321(a), (b), 322(a)(1), (2)(A), 361(a), 371(a), title VI, §§601(a)(1), 625(a)(2), 671(a)(3)(B), (b)(5), (e)(2), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–555, 3009–575, 3009–617, 3009–620, 3009–621, 3009–627 to 3009–629, 3009–644, 3009–645, 3009–689, 3009–700, 3009–721 to 3009–723; Pub. L. 105–54, §1(a), Oct. 6, 1997, 111 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 105–119, title I, §113, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2460; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IV, §421, div. G, title XXII, §2222(e), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–657, 2681–819; Pub. L. 105–319, §2(b)(1), (e)(2), formerly (d)(2), Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3014, 3015, renumbered §2(e)(2), Pub. L. 108–449, §1(a)(3)(A), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3470; Pub. L. 106–95, §2(a), (c), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1312, 1316; Pub. L. 106–139, §1(a), (b)(1), Dec. 7, 1999, 113 Stat. 1696; Pub. L. 106–279, title III, §302(a), (c), Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 838, 839; Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, §107(e)(1), (4), div. B, title V, §§1503(a), §1513(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1477, 1479, 1518, 1534; Pub. L. 106–395, title II, §201(a)(1), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1633; Pub. L. 106–409, §2(a), Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1787; Pub. L. 106–536, §1(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2560; Pub. L. 106–553, §1(a)(2) [title XI, §§1102(a), 1103(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2762, 2762A–142, 2762A–144; Pub. L. 107–125, §2(b), Jan. 16, 2002, 115 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 107–274, §2(a), (b), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1923; Pub. L. 108–77, title IV, §402(a)(1), Sept. 3, 2003, 117 Stat. 939; Pub. L. 108–99, §1, Oct. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 108–193, §§4(b)(1), (5), 8(a)(1), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2878, 2879, 2886; Pub. L. 108–449, §1(a)(2)(B), (b)(1), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3469, 3470; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §5504, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3741; Pub. L. 109–13, div. B, title V, §501(a), May 11, 2005, 119 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §536, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2087; Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, §§801, 805(d), 811, 822(c)(1), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3053, 3056, 3057, 3063; Pub. L. 109–248, title IV, §402(b), July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 623; Pub. L. 110–229, title VII, §702(j)(1)–(3), May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 866; Pub. L. 110–391, §2(a), Oct. 10, 2008, 122 Stat. 4193; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §§201(a), 235(d)(1), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5052, 5079; Pub. L. 111–9, §1, Mar. 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 989; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §568(a)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2186; Pub. L. 111–287, §3, Nov. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 3058; Pub. L. 111–306, §1(a), Dec. 14, 2010, 124 Stat. 3280.)

8 USC § 1102. Diplomatic and semidiplomatic immunities

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, for so long as they continue in the nonimmigrant classes enumerated in this section, the provisions of this chapter relating to ineligibility to receive visas and the removal of aliens shall not be construed to apply to nonimmigrants—
(1) within the class described in paragraph (15)(A)(i) of section 1101(a) of this title, except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraph (15)(A)(i), and, under such rules and regulations as the President may deem to be necessary, the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 1182(a)(3) of this title;
(2) within the class described in paragraph (15)(G)(i) of section 1101(a) of this title, except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraph (15)(G)(i), and the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 1182(a)(3) of this title; and
(3) within the classes described in paragraphs (15)(A)(ii), (15)(G)(ii), (15)(G)(iii), or (15)(G)(iv) of section 1101(a) of this title, except those provisions relating to reasonable requirements of passports and visas as a means of identification and documentation necessary to establish their qualifications under such paragraphs, and the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (C) of section 1182(a)(3) of this title.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title I, §102, 66 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 100–525, §9(b), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619; Pub. L. 101–649, title VI, §603(a)(2), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5082; Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §307(i), Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(B), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–617.)
Denial of Visas to Certain Representatives to United Nations
Pub. L. 101–246, title IV, §407, Feb. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 67, provided that:
“(a) In General.—The President shall use his authority, including the authorities contained in section 6 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement Act (Public Law 80–357) [Aug. 4, 1947, ch. 482, set out as a note under 22 U.S.C. 287], to deny any individual's admission to the United States as a representative to the United Nations if the President determines that such individual has been found to have been engaged in espionage activities directed against the United States or its allies and may pose a threat to United States national security interests.
“(b) Waiver.—The President may waive the provisions of subsection (a) if the President determines, and so notifies the Congress, that such a waiver is in the national security interests of the United States.”

8 USC § 1103. Powers and duties of the Secretary, the Under Secretary, and the Attorney General

(a) Secretary of Homeland Security
(1) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall be charged with the administration and enforcement of this chapter and all other laws relating to the immigration and naturalization of aliens, except insofar as this chapter or such laws relate to the powers, functions, and duties conferred upon the President, Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the officers of the Department of State, or diplomatic or consular officers: Provided, however, That determination and ruling by the Attorney General with respect to all questions of law shall be controlling.
(2) He shall have control, direction, and supervision of all employees and of all the files and records of the Service.
(3) He shall establish such regulations; prescribe such forms of bond, reports, entries, and other papers; issue such instructions; and perform such other acts as he deems necessary for carrying out his authority under the provisions of this chapter.
(4) He may require or authorize any employee of the Service or the Department of Justice to perform or exercise any of the powers, privileges, or duties conferred or imposed by this chapter or regulations issued thereunder upon any other employee of the Service.
(5) He shall have the power and duty to control and guard the boundaries and borders of the United States against the illegal entry of aliens and shall, in his discretion, appoint for that purpose such number of employees of the Service as to him shall appear necessary and proper.
(6) He is authorized to confer or impose upon any employee of the United States, with the consent of the head of the Department or other independent establishment under whose jurisdiction the employee is serving, any of the powers, privileges, or duties conferred or imposed by this chapter or regulations issued thereunder upon officers or employees of the Service.
(7) He may, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State, establish offices of the Service in foreign countries; and, after consultation with the Secretary of State, he may, whenever in his judgment such action may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of this chapter, detail employees of the Service for duty in foreign countries.
(8) After consultation with the Secretary of State, the Attorney General may authorize officers of a foreign country to be stationed at preclearance facilities in the United States for the purpose of ensuring that persons traveling from or through the United States to that foreign country comply with that country's immigration and related laws.
(9) Those officers may exercise such authority and perform such duties as United States immigration officers are authorized to exercise and perform in that foreign country under reciprocal agreement, and they shall enjoy such reasonable privileges and immunities necessary for the performance of their duties as the government of their country extends to United States immigration officers.
(10) In the event the Attorney General determines that an actual or imminent mass influx of aliens arriving off the coast of the United States, or near a land border, presents urgent circumstances requiring an immediate Federal response, the Attorney General may authorize any State or local law enforcement officer, with the consent of the head of the department, agency, or establishment under whose jurisdiction the individual is serving, to perform or exercise any of the powers, privileges, or duties conferred or imposed by this chapter or regulations issued thereunder upon officers or employees of the Service.
(11) The Attorney General, in support of persons in administrative detention in non-Federal institutions, is authorized—
(A) to make payments from funds appropriated for the administration and enforcement of the laws relating to immigration, naturalization, and alien registration for necessary clothing, medical care, necessary guard hire, and the housing, care, and security of persons detained by the Service pursuant to Federal law under an agreement with a State or political subdivision of a State; and
(B) to enter into a cooperative agreement with any State, territory, or political subdivision thereof, for the necessary construction, physical renovation, acquisition of equipment, supplies or materials required to establish acceptable conditions of confinement and detention services in any State or unit of local government which agrees to provide guaranteed bed space for persons detained by the Service.
(b) Land acquisition authority
(1) The Attorney General may contract for or buy any interest in land, including temporary use rights, adjacent to or in the vicinity of an international land border when the Attorney General deems the land essential to control and guard the boundaries and borders of the United States against any violation of this chapter.
(2) The Attorney General may contract for or buy any interest in land identified pursuant to paragraph (1) as soon as the lawful owner of that interest fixes a price for it and the Attorney General considers that price to be reasonable.
(3) When the Attorney General and the lawful owner of an interest identified pursuant to paragraph (1) are unable to agree upon a reasonable price, the Attorney General may commence condemnation proceedings pursuant to section 3113 of title 40.
(4) The Attorney General may accept for the United States a gift of any interest in land identified pursuant to paragraph (1).
(c) Commissioner; appointment
The Commissioner shall be a citizen of the United States and shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. He shall be charged with any and all responsibilities and authority in the administration of the Service and of this chapter which are conferred upon the Attorney General as may be delegated to him by the Attorney General or which may be prescribed by the Attorney General. The Commissioner may enter into cooperative agreements with State and local law enforcement agencies for the purpose of assisting in the enforcement of the immigration laws.
(d) Statistical information system
(1) The Commissioner, in consultation with interested academicians, government agencies, and other parties, shall provide for a system for collection and dissemination, to Congress and the public, of information (not in individually identifiable form) useful in evaluating the social, economic, environmental, and demographic impact of immigration laws.
(2) Such information shall include information on the alien population in the United States, on the rates of naturalization and emigration of resident aliens, on aliens who have been admitted, paroled, or granted asylum, on nonimmigrants in the United States (by occupation, basis for admission, and duration of stay), on aliens who have not been admitted or have been removed from the United States, on the number of applications filed and granted for cancellation of removal, and on the number of aliens estimated to be present unlawfully in the United States in each fiscal year.
(3) Such system shall provide for the collection and dissemination of such information not less often than annually.
(e) Annual report
(1) The Commissioner shall submit to Congress annually a report which contains a summary of the information collected under subsection (d) of this section and an analysis of trends in immigration and naturalization.
(2) Each annual report shall include information on the number, and rate of denial administratively, of applications for naturalization, for each district office of the Service and by national origin group.
(f) Minimum number of agents in States
The Attorney General shall allocate to each State not fewer than 10 full-time active duty agents of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to carry out the functions of the Service, in order to ensure the effective enforcement of this chapter.
(g) Attorney General
(1) In general
The Attorney General shall have such authorities and functions under this chapter and all other laws relating to the immigration and naturalization of aliens as were exercised by the Executive Office for Immigration Review, or by the Attorney General with respect to the Executive Office for Immigration Review, on the day before the effective date of the Immigration Reform, Accountability and Security Enhancement Act of 2002.
(2) Powers
The Attorney General shall establish such regulations, prescribe such forms of bond, reports, entries, and other papers, issue such instructions, review such administrative determinations in immigration proceedings, delegate such authority, and perform such other acts as the Attorney General determines to be necessary for carrying out this section.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title I, §103, 66 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 100–525, §9(c), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619; Pub. L. 101–649, title I, §142, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5004; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title I, §§102(d), 125, 134(a), title III, §§308(d)(4)(C), (e)(4), 372, 373, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–555, 3009–562, 3009–564, 3009–618, 3009–620, 3009–646, 3009–647; Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1102, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2273; Pub. L. 108–7, div. L, §105(a)(1), (2), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 531; Pub. L. 108–458, title V, §5505(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3741; Pub. L. 111–122, §2(a), Dec. 22, 2009, 123 Stat. 3480.)

8 USC § 1104. Powers and duties of Secretary of State

(a) Powers and duties
The Secretary of State shall be charged with the administration and the enforcement of the provisions of this chapter and all other immigration and nationality laws relating to (1) the powers, duties, and functions of diplomatic and consular officers of the United States, except those powers, duties, and functions conferred upon the consular officers relating to the granting or refusal of visas; (2) the powers, duties, and functions of the Administrator; and (3) the determination of nationality of a person not in the United States. He shall establish such regulations; prescribe such forms of reports, entries and other papers; issue such instructions; and perform such other acts as he deems necessary for carrying out such provisions. He is authorized to confer or impose upon any employee of the United States, with the consent of the head of the department or independent establishment under whose jurisdiction the employee is serving, any of the powers, functions, or duties conferred or imposed by this chapter or regulations issued thereunder upon officers or employees of the Department of State or of the American Foreign Service.
(b) Designation and duties of Administrator
The Secretary of State shall designate an Administrator who shall be a citizen of the United States, qualified by experience. The Administrator shall maintain close liaison with the appropriate committees of Congress in order that they may be advised regarding the administration of this chapter by consular officers. The Administrator shall be charged with any and all responsibility and authority in the administration of this chapter which are conferred on the Secretary of State as may be delegated to the Administrator by the Secretary of State or which may be prescribed by the Secretary of State, and shall perform such other duties as the Secretary of State may prescribe.
(c) Passport Office, Visa Office, and other offices; directors
Within the Department of State there shall be a Passport Office, a Visa Office, and such other offices as the Secretary of State may deem to be appropriate, each office to be headed by a director. The Directors of the Passport Office and the Visa Office shall be experienced in the administration of the nationality and immigration laws.
(d) Transfer of duties
The functions heretofore performed by the Passport Division and the Visa Division of the Department of State shall hereafter be performed by the Passport Office and the Visa Office, respectively.
(e) General Counsel of Visa Office; appointment and duties
There shall be a General Counsel of the Visa Office, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of State and who shall serve under the general direction of the Legal Adviser of the Department of State. The General Counsel shall have authority to maintain liaison with the appropriate officers of the Service with a view to securing uniform interpretations of the provisions of this chapter.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title I, §104, 66 Stat. 174; Pub. L. 87-510, §4(a)(2), June 28, 1962, 76 Stat. 123; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(43), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 428; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(b)(1), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 100–525, §9(d), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2620; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(h)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 407.)

8 USC § 1105. Liaison with internal security officers; data exchange

(a) In general
The Commissioner and the Administrator shall have authority to maintain direct and continuous liaison with the Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency and with other internal security officers of the Government for the purpose of obtaining and exchanging information for use in enforcing the provisions of this chapter in the interest of the internal and border security of the United States. The Commissioner and the Administrator shall maintain direct and continuous liaison with each other with a view to a coordinated, uniform, and efficient administration of this chapter, and all other immigration and nationality laws.
(b) Access to National Crime Information Center files
(1) The Attorney General and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall provide the Department of State and the Service access to the criminal history record information contained in the National Crime Information Center's Interstate Identification Index (NCIC-III), Wanted Persons File, and to any other files maintained by the National Crime Information Center that may be mutually agreed upon by the Attorney General and the agency receiving the access, for the purpose of determining whether or not a visa applicant or applicant for admission has a criminal history record indexed in any such file.
(2) Such access shall be provided by means of extracts of the records for placement in the automated visa lookout or other appropriate database, and shall be provided without any fee or charge.
(3) The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall provide periodic updates of the extracts at intervals mutually agreed upon with the agency receiving the access. Upon receipt of such updated extracts, the receiving agency shall make corresponding updates to its database and destroy previously provided extracts.
(4) Access to an extract does not entitle the Department of State to obtain the full content of the corresponding automated criminal history record. To obtain the full content of a criminal history record, the Department of State shall submit the applicant's fingerprints and any appropriate fingerprint processing fee authorized by law to the Criminal Justice Information Services Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
(c) Reconsideration upon development of more cost effective means of sharing information
The provision of the extracts described in subsection (b) of this section may be reconsidered by the Attorney General and the receiving agency upon the development and deployment of a more cost-effective and efficient means of sharing the information.
(d) Regulations
For purposes of administering this section, the Department of State shall, prior to receiving access to NCIC data but not later than 4 months after October 26, 2001, promulgate final regulations—
(1) to implement procedures for the taking of fingerprints; and
(2) to establish the conditions for the use of the information received from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, in order—
(A) to limit the redissemination of such information;
(B) to ensure that such information is used solely to determine whether or not to issue a visa to an alien or to admit an alien to the United States;
(C) to ensure the security, confidentiality, and destruction of such information; and
(D) to protect any privacy rights of individuals who are subjects of such information.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title I, §105, 66 Stat. 175; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(b)(2), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 847; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(h)(3), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, §403(a), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 343.)

SUBCHAPTER II—IMMIGRATION

Part II—Admission Qualifications for Aliens; Travel Control of Citizens and Aliens

8 USC § 1189. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations

(a) Designation
(1) In general
The Secretary is authorized to designate an organization as a foreign terrorist organization in accordance with this subsection if the Secretary finds that—
(A) the organization is a foreign organization;
(B) the organization engages in terrorist activity (as defined in section 1182(a)(3)(B) of this title or terrorism (as defined in section 2656f(d)(2) of title 22), or retains the capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism); and
(C) the terrorist activity or terrorism of the organization threatens the security of United States nationals or the national security of the United States.
(2) Procedure
(A) Notice
(i) To congressional leaders
Seven days before making a designation under this subsection, the Secretary shall, by classified communication, notify the Speaker and Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore, Majority Leader, and Minority Leader of the Senate, and the members of the relevant committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in writing, of the intent to designate an organization under this subsection, together with the findings made under paragraph (1) with respect to that organization, and the factual basis therefor.
(ii) Publication in Federal Register
The Secretary shall publish the designation in the Federal Register seven days after providing the notification under clause (i).
(B) Effect of designation
(i) For purposes of section 2339B of title 18, a designation under this subsection shall take effect upon publication under subparagraph (A)(ii).
(ii) Any designation under this subsection shall cease to have effect upon an Act of Congress disapproving such designation.
(C) Freezing of assets
Upon notification under paragraph (2)(A)(i), the Secretary of the Treasury may require United States financial institutions possessing or controlling any assets of any foreign organization included in the notification to block all financial transactions involving those assets until further directive from either the Secretary of the Treasury, Act of Congress, or order of court.
(3) Record
(A) In general
In making a designation under this subsection, the Secretary shall create an administrative record.
(B) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in making a designation under this subsection. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(4) Period of designation
(A) In general
A designation under this subsection shall be effective for all purposes until revoked under paragraph (5) or (6) or set aside pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.
(B) Review of designation upon petition
(i) In general
The Secretary shall review the designation of a foreign terrorist organization under the procedures set forth in clauses (iii) and (iv) if the designated organization files a petition for revocation within the petition period described in clause (ii).
(ii) Petition period
For purposes of clause (i)—
(I) if the designated organization has not previously filed a petition for revocation under this subparagraph, the petition period begins 2 years after the date on which the designation was made; or
(II) if the designated organization has previously filed a petition for revocation under this subparagraph, the petition period begins 2 years after the date of the determination made under clause (iv) on that petition.
(iii) Procedures
Any foreign terrorist organization that submits a petition for revocation under this subparagraph must provide evidence in that petition that the relevant circumstances described in paragraph (1) are sufficiently different from the circumstances that were the basis for the designation such that a revocation with respect to the organization is warranted.
(iv) Determination
(I) In general
Not later than 180 days after receiving a petition for revocation submitted under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall make a determination as to such revocation.
(II) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in making a determination in response to a petition for revocation. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(III) Publication of determination
A determination made by the Secretary under this clause shall be published in the Federal Register.
(IV) Procedures
Any revocation by the Secretary shall be made in accordance with paragraph (6).
(C) Other review of designation
(i) In general
If in a 5-year period no review has taken place under subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall review the designation of the foreign terrorist organization in order to determine whether such designation should be revoked pursuant to paragraph (6).
(ii) Procedures
If a review does not take place pursuant to subparagraph (B) in response to a petition for revocation that is filed in accordance with that subparagraph, then the review shall be conducted pursuant to procedures established by the Secretary. The results of such review and the applicable procedures shall not be reviewable in any court.
(iii) Publication of results of review
The Secretary shall publish any determination made pursuant to this subparagraph in the Federal Register.
(5) Revocation by Act of Congress
The Congress, by an Act of Congress, may block or revoke a designation made under paragraph (1).
(6) Revocation based on change in circumstances
(A) In general
The Secretary may revoke a designation made under paragraph (1) at any time, and shall revoke a designation upon completion of a review conducted pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (4) if the Secretary finds that—
(i) the circumstances that were the basis for the designation have changed in such a manner as to warrant revocation; or
(ii) the national security of the United States warrants a revocation.
(B) Procedure
The procedural requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) shall apply to a revocation under this paragraph. Any revocation shall take effect on the date specified in the revocation or upon publication in the Federal Register if no effective date is specified.
(7) Effect of revocation
The revocation of a designation under paragraph (5) or (6) shall not affect any action or proceeding based on conduct committed prior to the effective date of such revocation.
(8) Use of designation in trial or hearing
If a designation under this subsection has become effective under paragraph (2)(B) a defendant in a criminal action or an alien in a removal proceeding shall not be permitted to raise any question concerning the validity of the issuance of such designation as a defense or an objection at any trial or hearing.
(b) Amendments to a designation
(1) In general
The Secretary may amend a designation under this subsection if the Secretary finds that the organization has changed its name, adopted a new alias, dissolved and then reconstituted itself under a different name or names, or merged with another organization.
(2) Procedure
Amendments made to a designation in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (a)(2) of this section shall apply to an amended designation upon such publication. Paragraphs (2)(A)(i), (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8) of subsection (a) of this section shall also apply to an amended designation.
(3) Administrative record
The administrative record shall be corrected to include the amendments as well as any additional relevant information that supports those amendments.
(4) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in amending a designation in accordance with this subsection. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(c) Judicial review of designation
(1) In general
Not later than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register of a designation, an amended designation, or a determination in response to a petition for revocation, the designated organization may seek judicial review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
(2) Basis of review
Review under this subsection shall be based solely upon the administrative record, except that the Government may submit, for ex parte and in camera review, classified information used in making the designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation.
(3) Scope of review
The Court shall hold unlawful and set aside a designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation the court finds to be—
(A) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law;
(B) contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity;
(C) in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitation, or short of statutory right;
(D) lacking substantial support in the administrative record taken as a whole or in classified information submitted to the court under paragraph (2), or
(E) not in accord with the procedures required by law.
(4) Judicial review invoked
The pendency of an action for judicial review of a designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation shall not affect the application of this section, unless the court issues a final order setting aside the designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation.
(d) Definitions
As used in this section—
(1) the term “classified information” has the meaning given that term in section 1(a) of the Classified Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C. App.);
(2) the term “national security” means the national defense, foreign relations, or economic interests of the United States;
(3) the term “relevant committees” means the Committees on the Judiciary, Intelligence, and Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committees on the Judiciary, Intelligence, and International Relations of the House of Representatives; and
(4) the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 2, §219, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §302(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1248; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §356, title VI, §671(c)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–644, 3009–722; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, §411(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7119(a)–(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3801, 3802.)

SUBCHAPTER V—ALIEN TERRORIST REMOVAL PROCEDURES

8 USC § 1531. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—
(1) the term “alien terrorist” means any alien described in section 1227(a)(4)(B) of this title;
(2) the term “classified information” has the same meaning as in section 1(a) of the Classified Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C. App.);
(3) the term “national security” has the same meaning as in section 1(b) of the Classified Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C. App.);
(4) the term “removal court” means the court described in section 1532 of this title;
(5) the term “removal hearing” means the hearing described in section 1534 of this title;
(6) the term “removal proceeding” means a proceeding under this subchapter; and
(7) the term “special attorney” means an attorney who is on the panel established under section 1532(e) of this title.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §501, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1258; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§308(g)(1), 354(a)(5), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622, 3009–643.)

8 USC § 1532. Establishment of removal court

(a) Designation of judges
The Chief Justice of the United States shall publicly designate 5 district court judges from 5 of the United States judicial circuits who shall constitute a court that shall have jurisdiction to conduct all removal proceedings. The Chief Justice may, in the Chief Justice's discretion, designate the same judges under this section as are designated pursuant to section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)).
(b) Terms
Each judge designated under subsection (a) of this section shall serve for a term of 5 years and shall be eligible for redesignation, except that of the members first designated—
(1) 1 member shall serve for a term of 1 year;
(2) 1 member shall serve for a term of 2 years;
(3) 1 member shall serve for a term of 3 years; and
(4) 1 member shall serve for a term of 4 years.
(c) Chief judge
(1) Designation
The Chief Justice shall publicly designate one of the judges of the removal court to be the chief judge of the removal court.
(2) Responsibilities
The chief judge shall—
(A) promulgate rules to facilitate the functioning of the removal court; and
(B) assign the consideration of cases to the various judges on the removal court.
(d) Expeditious and confidential nature of proceedings
The provisions of section 103(c) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(c)) shall apply to removal proceedings in the same manner as they apply to proceedings under that Act [50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.].
(e) Establishment of panel of special attorneys
The removal court shall provide for the designation of a panel of attorneys each of whom—
(1) has a security clearance which affords the attorney access to classified information, and
(2) has agreed to represent permanent resident aliens with respect to classified information under section 1534(e)(3) of this title in accordance with (and subject to the penalties under) this subchapter.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §502, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1259; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §354(a)(4), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–643.)

8 USC § 1533. Removal court procedure

(a) Application
(1) In general
In any case in which the Attorney General has classified information that an alien is an alien terrorist, the Attorney General may seek removal of the alien under this subchapter by filing an application with the removal court that contains—
(A) the identity of the attorney in the Department of Justice making the application;
(B) a certification by the Attorney General or the Deputy Attorney General that the application satisfies the criteria and requirements of this section;
(C) the identity of the alien for whom authorization for the removal proceeding is sought; and
(D) a statement of the facts and circumstances relied on by the Department of Justice to establish probable cause that—
(i) the alien is an alien terrorist;
(ii) the alien is physically present in the United States; and
(iii) with respect to such alien, removal under subchapter II would pose a risk to the national security of the United States.
(2) Filing
An application under this section shall be submitted ex parte and in camera, and shall be filed under seal with the removal court.
(b) Right to dismiss
The Attorney General may dismiss a removal action under this subchapter at any stage of the proceeding.
(c) Consideration of application
(1) Basis for decision
In determining whether to grant an application under this section, a single judge of the removal court may consider, ex parte and in camera, in addition to the information contained in the application—
(A) other information, including classified information, presented under oath or affirmation; and
(B) testimony received in any hearing on the application, of which a verbatim record shall be kept.
(2) Approval of order
The judge shall issue an order granting the application, if the judge finds that there is probable cause to believe that—
(A) the alien who is the subject of the application has been correctly identified and is an alien terrorist present in the United States; and
(B) removal under subchapter II would pose a risk to the national security of the United States.
(3) Denial of order
If the judge denies the order requested in the application, the judge shall prepare a written statement of the reasons for the denial, taking all necessary precautions not to disclose any classified information contained in the Government's application.
(d) Exclusive provisions
If an order is issued under this section granting an application, the rights of the alien regarding removal and expulsion shall be governed solely by this subchapter, and except as they are specifically referenced in this subchapter, no other provisions of this chapter shall be applicable.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §503, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1259.)

8 USC § 1534. Removal hearing

(a) In general
(1) Expeditious hearing
In any case in which an application for an order is approved under section 1533(c)(2) of this title, a removal hearing shall be conducted under this section as expeditiously as practicable for the purpose of determining whether the alien to whom the order pertains should be removed from the United States on the grounds that the alien is an alien terrorist.
(2) Public hearing
The removal hearing shall be open to the public.
(b) Notice
An alien who is the subject of a removal hearing under this subchapter shall be given reasonable notice of—
(1) the nature of the charges against the alien, including a general account of the basis for the charges; and
(2) the time and place at which the hearing will be held.
(c) Rights in hearing
(1) Right of counsel
The alien shall have a right to be present at such hearing and to be represented by counsel. Any alien financially unable to obtain counsel shall be entitled to have counsel assigned to represent the alien. Such counsel shall be appointed by the judge pursuant to the plan for furnishing representation for any person financially unable to obtain adequate representation for the district in which the hearing is conducted, as provided for in section 3006A of title 18. All provisions of that section shall apply and, for purposes of determining the maximum amount of compensation, the matter shall be treated as if a felony was charged.
(2) Introduction of evidence
Subject to the limitations in subsection (e) of this section, the alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to introduce evidence on the alien's own behalf.
(3) Examination of witnesses
Subject to the limitations in subsection (e) of this section, the alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against the alien and to cross-examine any witness.
(4) Record
A verbatim record of the proceedings and of all testimony and evidence offered or produced at such a hearing shall be kept.
(5) Removal decision based on evidence at hearing
The decision of the judge regarding removal shall be based only on that evidence introduced at the removal hearing.
(d) Subpoenas
(1) Request
At any time prior to the conclusion of the removal hearing, either the alien or the Department of Justice may request the judge to issue a subpoena for the presence of a named witness (which subpoena may also command the person to whom it is directed to produce books, papers, documents, or other objects designated therein) upon a satisfactory showing that the presence of the witness is necessary for the determination of any material matter. Such a request may be made ex parte except that the judge shall inform the Department of Justice of any request for a subpoena by the alien for a witness or material if compliance with such a subpoena would reveal classified evidence or the source of that evidence. The Department of Justice shall be given a reasonable opportunity to oppose the issuance of such a subpoena.
(2) Payment for attendance
If an application for a subpoena by the alien also makes a showing that the alien is financially unable to pay for the attendance of a witness so requested, the court may order the costs incurred by the process and the fees of the witness so subpoenaed to be paid from funds appropriated for the enforcement of subchapter II of this chapter.
(3) Nationwide service
A subpoena under this subsection may be served anywhere in the United States.
(4) Witness fees
A witness subpoenaed under this subsection shall receive the same fees and expenses as a witness subpoenaed in connection with a civil proceeding in a court of the United States.
(5) No access to classified information
Nothing in this subsection is intended to allow an alien to have access to classified information.
(e) Discovery
(1) In general
For purposes of this subchapter—
(A) the Government is authorized to use in a removal proceedings  the fruits of electronic surveillance and unconsented physical searches authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) without regard to subsections (c), (e), (f), (g), and (h) of section 106 of that Act [50 U.S.C. 1806(c), (e), (f), (g), (h)] and discovery of information derived pursuant to such Act, or otherwise collected for national security purposes, shall not be authorized if disclosure would present a risk to the national security of the United States;
(B) an alien subject to removal under this subchapter shall not be entitled to suppress evidence that the alien alleges was unlawfully obtained; and
(C) section 3504 of title 18 and section 1806(c) of title 50 shall not apply if the Attorney General determines that public disclosure would pose a risk to the national security of the United States because it would disclose classified information or otherwise threaten the integrity of a pending investigation.
(2) Protective orders
Nothing in this subchapter shall prevent the United States from seeking protective orders and from asserting privileges ordinarily available to the United States to protect against the disclosure of classified information, including the invocation of the military and State secrets privileges.
(3) Treatment of classified information
(A) Use
The judge shall examine, ex parte and in camera, any evidence for which the Attorney General determines that public disclosure would pose a risk to the national security of the United States or to the security of any individual because it would disclose classified information and neither the alien nor the public shall be informed of such evidence or its sources other than through reference to the summary provided pursuant to this paragraph. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, the Department of Justice may, in its discretion and, in the case of classified information, after coordination with the originating agency, elect to introduce such evidence in open session.
(B) Submission
With respect to such information, the Government shall submit to the removal court an unclassified summary of the specific evidence that does not pose that risk.
(C) Approval
Not later than 15 days after submission, the judge shall approve the summary if the judge finds that it is sufficient to enable the alien to prepare a defense. The Government shall deliver to the alien a copy of the unclassified summary approved under this subparagraph.
(D) Disapproval
(i) In general
If an unclassified summary is not approved by the removal court under subparagraph (C), the Government shall be afforded 15 days to correct the deficiencies identified by the court and submit a revised unclassified summary.
(ii) Revised summary
If the revised unclassified summary is not approved by the court within 15 days of its submission pursuant to subparagraph (C), the removal hearing shall be terminated unless the judge makes the findings under clause (iii).
(iii) Findings
The findings described in this clause are, with respect to an alien, that—
(I) the continued presence of the alien in the United States would likely cause serious and irreparable harm to the national security or death or serious bodily injury to any person, and
(II) the provision of the summary would likely cause serious and irreparable harm to the national security or death or serious bodily injury to any person.
(E) Continuation of hearing without summary
If a judge makes the findings described in subparagraph (D)(iii)—
(i) if the alien involved is an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, the procedures described in subparagraph (F) shall apply; and
(ii) in all cases the special removal hearing shall continue, the Department of Justice shall cause to be delivered to the alien a statement that no summary is possible, and the classified information submitted in camera and ex parte may be used pursuant to this paragraph.
(F) Special procedures for access and challenges to classified information by special attorneys in case of lawful permanent aliens
(i) In general
The procedures described in this subparagraph are that the judge (under rules of the removal court) shall designate a special attorney to assist the alien—
(I) by reviewing in camera the classified information on behalf of the alien, and
(II) by challenging through an in camera proceeding the veracity of the evidence contained in the classified information.
(ii) Restrictions on disclosure
A special attorney receiving classified information under clause (i)—
(I) shall not disclose the information to the alien or to any other attorney representing the alien, and
(II) who discloses such information in violation of subclause (I) shall be subject to a fine under title 18, imprisoned for not less than 10 years nor more than 25 years, or both.
(f) Arguments
Following the receipt of evidence, the Government and the alien shall be given fair opportunity to present argument as to whether the evidence is sufficient to justify the removal of the alien. The Government shall open the argument. The alien shall be permitted to reply. The Government shall then be permitted to reply in rebuttal. The judge may allow any part of the argument that refers to evidence received in camera and ex parte to be heard in camera and ex parte.
(g) Burden of proof
In the hearing, it is the Government's burden to prove, by the preponderance of the evidence, that the alien is subject to removal because the alien is an alien terrorist.
(h) Rules of evidence
The Federal Rules of Evidence shall not apply in a removal hearing.
(i) Determination of deportation
If the judge, after considering the evidence on the record as a whole, finds that the Government has met its burden, the judge shall order the alien removed and detained pending removal from the United States. If the alien was released pending the removal hearing, the judge shall order the Attorney General to take the alien into custody.
(j) Written order
At the time of issuing a decision as to whether the alien shall be removed, the judge shall prepare a written order containing a statement of facts found and conclusions of law. Any portion of the order that would reveal the substance or source of information received in camera and ex parte pursuant to subsection (e) of this section shall not be made available to the alien or the public.
(k) No right to ancillary relief
At no time shall the judge consider or provide for relief from removal based on—
(1) asylum under section 1158 of this title;
(2) by  withholding of removal under section 1231(b)(3) of this title;
(3) cancellation of removal under section 1229b of this title;
(4) voluntary departure under section 1254a(e)  of this title;
(5) adjustment of status under section 1255 of this title; or
(6) registry under section 1259 of this title.
(l) Report on terrorist removal proceedings
Not later than 3 months from December 28, 2001, the Attorney General shall submit to Congress a report concerning the effect and efficacy of alien terrorist removal proceedings, including the reasons why proceedings pursuant to this section have not been used by the Attorney General in the past and the effect on the use of these proceedings after the enactment of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (Public Law 107–56).
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §504, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1260; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §§308(g)(7)(B), (8)(B), 354(a)(1), (2), (b), 357, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–623, 3009–624, 3009–641 to 3009–644; Pub. L. 107–108, title III, §313, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1401.)

8 USC § 1535. Appeals

(a) Appeal of denial of application for removal proceedings
(1) In general
The Attorney General may seek a review of the denial of an order sought in an application filed pursuant to section 1533 of this title. The appeal shall be filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by notice of appeal filed not later than 20 days after the date of such denial.
(2) Record on appeal
The entire record of the proceeding shall be transmitted to the Court of Appeals under seal, and the Court of Appeals shall hear the matter ex parte.
(3) Standard of review
The Court of Appeals shall—
(A) review questions of law de novo; and
(B) set aside a finding of fact only if such finding was clearly erroneous.
(b) Appeal of determination regarding summary of classified information
(1) In general
The United States may take an interlocutory appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit of—
(A) any determination by the judge pursuant to section 1534(e)(3) of this title; or
(B) the refusal of the court to make the findings permitted by section 1534(e)(3) of this title.
(2) Record
In any interlocutory appeal taken pursuant to this subsection, the entire record, including any proposed order of the judge, any classified information and the summary of evidence, shall be transmitted to the Court of Appeals. The classified information shall be transmitted under seal. A verbatim record of such appeal shall be kept under seal in the event of any other judicial review.
(c) Appeal of decision in hearing
(1) In general
Subject to paragraph (2), the decision of the judge after a removal hearing may be appealed by either the alien or the Attorney General to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit by notice of appeal filed not later than 20 days after the date on which the order is issued. The order shall not be enforced during the pendency of an appeal under this subsection.
(2) Automatic appeals in cases of permanent resident aliens in which no summary provided
(A) In general
Unless the alien waives the right to a review under this paragraph, in any case involving an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence who is denied a written summary of classified information under section 1534(e)(3) of this title and with respect to which the procedures described in section 1534(e)(3)(F) of this title apply, any order issued by the judge shall be reviewed by the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
(B) Use of special attorney
With respect to any issue relating to classified information that arises in such review, the alien shall be represented only by the special attorney designated under section 1534(e)(3)(F)(i) of this title on behalf of the alien.
(3) Transmittal of record
In an appeal or review to the Court of Appeals pursuant to this subsection—
(A) the entire record shall be transmitted to the Court of Appeals; and
(B) information received in camera and ex parte, and any portion of the order that would reveal the substance or source of such information, shall be transmitted under seal.
(4) Expedited appellate proceeding
In an appeal or review to the Court of Appeals under this subsection—
(A) the appeal or review shall be heard as expeditiously as practicable and the court may dispense with full briefing and hear the matter solely on the record of the judge of the removal court and on such briefs or motions as the court may require to be filed by the parties;
(B) the Court of Appeals shall issue an opinion not later than 60 days after the date of the issuance of the final order of the district court;
(C) the court shall review all questions of law de novo; and
(D) a finding of fact shall be accorded deference by the reviewing court and shall not be set aside unless such finding was clearly erroneous, except that in the case of a review under paragraph (2) in which an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence was denied a written summary of classified information under section 1534(c)(3)  of this title, the Court of Appeals shall review questions of fact de novo.
(d) Certiorari
Following a decision by the Court of Appeals pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, the alien or the Attorney General may petition the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari. In any such case, any information transmitted to the Court of Appeals under seal shall, if such information is also submitted to the Supreme Court, be transmitted under seal. Any order of removal shall not be stayed pending disposition of a writ of certiorari, except as provided by the Court of Appeals or a Justice of the Supreme Court.
(e) Appeal of detention order
(1) In general
Sections 3145 through 3148 of title 18 pertaining to review and appeal of a release or detention order, penalties for failure to appear, penalties for an offense committed while on release, and sanctions for violation of a release condition shall apply to an alien to whom section 1537(b)(1) of this title applies. In applying the previous sentence—
(A) for purposes of section 3145 of such title an appeal shall be taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit; and
(B) for purposes of section 3146 of such title the alien shall be considered released in connection with a charge of an offense punishable by life imprisonment.
(2) No review of continued detention
The determinations and actions of the Attorney General pursuant to section 1537(b)(2)(C) of this title shall not be subject to judicial review, including application for a writ of habeas corpus, except for a claim by the alien that continued detention violates the alien's rights under the Constitution. Jurisdiction over any such challenge shall lie exclusively in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §505, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1263; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §354(a)(3), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–642.)

8 USC § 1536. Custody and release pending removal hearing

(a) Upon filing application
(1) In general
Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the Attorney General may—
(A) take into custody any alien with respect to whom an application under section 1533 of this title has been filed; and
(B) retain such an alien in custody in accordance with the procedures authorized by this subchapter.
(2) Special rules for permanent resident aliens
(A) Release hearing
An alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence shall be entitled to a release hearing before the judge assigned to hear the removal hearing. Such an alien shall be detained pending the removal hearing, unless the alien demonstrates to the court that the alien—
(i) is a person lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States;
(ii) if released upon such terms and conditions as the court may prescribe (including the posting of any monetary amount), is not likely to flee; and
(iii) will not endanger national security, or the safety of any person or the community, if released.
(B) Information considered
The judge may consider classified information submitted in camera and ex parte in making a determination whether to release an alien pending the removal hearing.
(3) Release if order denied and no review sought
(A) In general
Subject to subparagraph (B), if a judge of the removal court denies the order sought in an application filed pursuant to section 1533 of this title, and the Attorney General does not seek review of such denial, the alien shall be released from custody.
(B) Application of regular procedures
Subparagraph (A) shall not prevent the arrest and detention of the alien pursuant to subchapter II of this chapter.
(b) Conditional release if order denied and review sought
(1) In general
If a judge of the removal court denies the order sought in an application filed pursuant to section 1533 of this title and the Attorney General seeks review of such denial, the judge shall release the alien from custody subject to the least restrictive condition, or combination of conditions, of release described in section 3142(b) and clauses (i) through (xiv) of section 3142(c)(1)(B) of title 18 that—
(A) will reasonably assure the appearance of the alien at any future proceeding pursuant to this subchapter; and
(B) will not endanger the safety of any other person or the community.
(2) No release for certain aliens
If the judge finds no such condition or combination of conditions, as described in paragraph (1), the alien shall remain in custody until the completion of any appeal authorized by this subchapter.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §506, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1265.)
Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions
For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

8 USC § 1537. Custody and release after removal hearing

(a) Release
(1) In general
Subject to paragraph (2), if the judge decides that an alien should not be removed, the alien shall be released from custody.
(2) Custody pending appeal
If the Attorney General takes an appeal from such decision, the alien shall remain in custody, subject to the provisions of section 3142 of title 18.
(b) Custody and removal
(1) Custody
If the judge decides that an alien shall be removed, the alien shall be detained pending the outcome of any appeal. After the conclusion of any judicial review thereof which affirms the removal order, the Attorney General shall retain the alien in custody and remove the alien to a country specified under paragraph (2).
(2) Removal
(A) In general
The removal of an alien shall be to any country which the alien shall designate if such designation does not, in the judgment of the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, impair the obligation of the United States under any treaty (including a treaty pertaining to extradition) or otherwise adversely affect the foreign policy of the United States.
(B) Alternate countries
If the alien refuses to designate a country to which the alien wishes to be removed or if the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, determines that removal of the alien to the country so designated would impair a treaty obligation or adversely affect United States foreign policy, the Attorney General shall cause the alien to be removed to any country willing to receive such alien.
(C) Continued detention
If no country is willing to receive such an alien, the Attorney General may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, retain the alien in custody. The Attorney General, in coordination with the Secretary of State, shall make periodic efforts to reach agreement with other countries to accept such an alien and at least every 6 months shall provide to the attorney representing the alien at the removal hearing a written report on the Attorney General's efforts. Any alien in custody pursuant to this subparagraph shall be released from custody solely at the discretion of the Attorney General and subject to such conditions as the Attorney General shall deem appropriate.
(D) Fingerprinting
Before an alien is removed from the United States pursuant to this subsection, or pursuant to an order of removal because such alien is inadmissible under section 1182(a)(3)(B) of this title, the alien shall be photographed and fingerprinted, and shall be advised of the provisions of section 1326(b) of this title.
(c) Continued detention pending trial
(1) Delay in removal
The Attorney General may hold in abeyance the removal of an alien who has been ordered removed, pursuant to this subchapter, to allow the trial of such alien on any Federal or State criminal charge and the service of any sentence of confinement resulting from such a trial.
(2) Maintenance of custody
Pending the commencement of any service of a sentence of confinement by an alien described in paragraph (1), such an alien shall remain in the custody of the Attorney General, unless the Attorney General determines that temporary release of the alien to the custody of State authorities for confinement in a State facility is appropriate and would not endanger national security or public safety.
(3) Subsequent removal
Following the completion of a sentence of confinement by an alien described in paragraph (1), or following the completion of State criminal proceedings which do not result in a sentence of confinement of an alien released to the custody of State authorities pursuant to paragraph (2), such an alien shall be returned to the custody of the Attorney General who shall proceed to the removal of the alien under this subchapter.
(d) Application of certain provisions relating to escape of prisoners
For purposes of sections 751 and 752 of title 18, an alien in the custody of the Attorney General pursuant to this subchapter shall be subject to the penalties provided by those sections in relation to a person committed to the custody of the Attorney General by virtue of an arrest on a charge of a felony.
(e) Rights of aliens in custody
(1) Family and attorney visits
An alien in the custody of the Attorney General pursuant to this subchapter shall be given reasonable opportunity, as determined by the Attorney General, to communicate with and receive visits from members of the alien's family, and to contact, retain, and communicate with an attorney.
(2) Diplomatic contact
An alien in the custody of the Attorney General pursuant to this subchapter shall have the right to contact an appropriate diplomatic or consular official of the alien's country of citizenship or nationality or of any country providing representation services therefore. The Attorney General shall notify the appropriate embassy, mission, or consular office of the alien's detention.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title V, §507, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, §401(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1266; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(d)(4)(Q), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–619.)