Statutory Law - US Code - 8 USC 1189. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations


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8 USC § 1189. Designation of foreign terrorist organizations

*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.

(a) Designation
(1) In general
The Secretary is authorized to designate an organization as a foreign terrorist organization in accordance with this subsection if the Secretary finds that—
(A) the organization is a foreign organization;
(B) the organization engages in terrorist activity (as defined in section 1182(a)(3)(B) of this title or terrorism (as defined in section 2656f(d)(2) of title 22), or retains the capability and intent to engage in terrorist activity or terrorism); and
(C) the terrorist activity or terrorism of the organization threatens the security of United States nationals or the national security of the United States.
(2) Procedure
(A) Notice
(i) To congressional leaders
Seven days before making a designation under this subsection, the Secretary shall, by classified communication, notify the Speaker and Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, the President pro tempore, Majority Leader, and Minority Leader of the Senate, and the members of the relevant committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in writing, of the intent to designate an organization under this subsection, together with the findings made under paragraph (1) with respect to that organization, and the factual basis therefor.
(ii) Publication in Federal Register
The Secretary shall publish the designation in the Federal Register seven days after providing the notification under clause (i).
(B) Effect of designation
(i) For purposes of section 2339B of title 18, a designation under this subsection shall take effect upon publication under subparagraph (A)(ii).
(ii) Any designation under this subsection shall cease to have effect upon an Act of Congress disapproving such designation.
(C) Freezing of assets
Upon notification under paragraph (2)(A)(i), the Secretary of the Treasury may require United States financial institutions possessing or controlling any assets of any foreign organization included in the notification to block all financial transactions involving those assets until further directive from either the Secretary of the Treasury, Act of Congress, or order of court.
(3) Record
(A) In general
In making a designation under this subsection, the Secretary shall create an administrative record.
(B) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in making a designation under this subsection. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(4) Period of designation
(A) In general
A designation under this subsection shall be effective for all purposes until revoked under paragraph (5) or (6) or set aside pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.
(B) Review of designation upon petition
(i) In general
The Secretary shall review the designation of a foreign terrorist organization under the procedures set forth in clauses (iii) and (iv) if the designated organization files a petition for revocation within the petition period described in clause (ii).
(ii) Petition period
For purposes of clause (i)—
(I) if the designated organization has not previously filed a petition for revocation under this subparagraph, the petition period begins 2 years after the date on which the designation was made; or
(II) if the designated organization has previously filed a petition for revocation under this subparagraph, the petition period begins 2 years after the date of the determination made under clause (iv) on that petition.
(iii) Procedures
Any foreign terrorist organization that submits a petition for revocation under this subparagraph must provide evidence in that petition that the relevant circumstances described in paragraph (1) are sufficiently different from the circumstances that were the basis for the designation such that a revocation with respect to the organization is warranted.
(iv) Determination
(I) In general
Not later than 180 days after receiving a petition for revocation submitted under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall make a determination as to such revocation.
(II) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in making a determination in response to a petition for revocation. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(III) Publication of determination
A determination made by the Secretary under this clause shall be published in the Federal Register.
(IV) Procedures
Any revocation by the Secretary shall be made in accordance with paragraph (6).
(C) Other review of designation
(i) In general
If in a 5-year period no review has taken place under subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall review the designation of the foreign terrorist organization in order to determine whether such designation should be revoked pursuant to paragraph (6).
(ii) Procedures
If a review does not take place pursuant to subparagraph (B) in response to a petition for revocation that is filed in accordance with that subparagraph, then the review shall be conducted pursuant to procedures established by the Secretary. The results of such review and the applicable procedures shall not be reviewable in any court.
(iii) Publication of results of review
The Secretary shall publish any determination made pursuant to this subparagraph in the Federal Register.
(5) Revocation by Act of Congress
The Congress, by an Act of Congress, may block or revoke a designation made under paragraph (1).
(6) Revocation based on change in circumstances
(A) In general
The Secretary may revoke a designation made under paragraph (1) at any time, and shall revoke a designation upon completion of a review conducted pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (4) if the Secretary finds that—
(i) the circumstances that were the basis for the designation have changed in such a manner as to warrant revocation; or
(ii) the national security of the United States warrants a revocation.
(B) Procedure
The procedural requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) shall apply to a revocation under this paragraph. Any revocation shall take effect on the date specified in the revocation or upon publication in the Federal Register if no effective date is specified.
(7) Effect of revocation
The revocation of a designation under paragraph (5) or (6) shall not affect any action or proceeding based on conduct committed prior to the effective date of such revocation.
(8) Use of designation in trial or hearing
If a designation under this subsection has become effective under paragraph (2)(B) a defendant in a criminal action or an alien in a removal proceeding shall not be permitted to raise any question concerning the validity of the issuance of such designation as a defense or an objection at any trial or hearing.
(b) Amendments to a designation
(1) In general
The Secretary may amend a designation under this subsection if the Secretary finds that the organization has changed its name, adopted a new alias, dissolved and then reconstituted itself under a different name or names, or merged with another organization.
(2) Procedure
Amendments made to a designation in accordance with paragraph (1) shall be effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Subparagraphs (B) and (C) of subsection (a)(2) of this section shall apply to an amended designation upon such publication. Paragraphs (2)(A)(i), (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8) of subsection (a) of this section shall also apply to an amended designation.
(3) Administrative record
The administrative record shall be corrected to include the amendments as well as any additional relevant information that supports those amendments.
(4) Classified information
The Secretary may consider classified information in amending a designation in accordance with this subsection. Classified information shall not be subject to disclosure for such time as it remains classified, except that such information may be disclosed to a court ex parte and in camera for purposes of judicial review under subsection (c) of this section.
(c) Judicial review of designation
(1) In general
Not later than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register of a designation, an amended designation, or a determination in response to a petition for revocation, the designated organization may seek judicial review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
(2) Basis of review
Review under this subsection shall be based solely upon the administrative record, except that the Government may submit, for ex parte and in camera review, classified information used in making the designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation.
(3) Scope of review
The Court shall hold unlawful and set aside a designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation the court finds to be—
(A) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law;
(B) contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity;
(C) in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitation, or short of statutory right;
(D) lacking substantial support in the administrative record taken as a whole or in classified information submitted to the court under paragraph (2), or
(E) not in accord with the procedures required by law.
(4) Judicial review invoked
The pendency of an action for judicial review of a designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation shall not affect the application of this section, unless the court issues a final order setting aside the designation, amended designation, or determination in response to a petition for revocation.
(d) Definitions
As used in this section—
(1) the term “classified information” has the meaning given that term in section 1(a) of the Classified Information Procedures Act (18 U.S.C. App.);
(2) the term “national security” means the national defense, foreign relations, or economic interests of the United States;
(3) the term “relevant committees” means the Committees on the Judiciary, Intelligence, and Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committees on the Judiciary, Intelligence, and International Relations of the House of Representatives; and
(4) the term “Secretary” means the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.
(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 2, §219, as added Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §302(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1248; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §356, title VI, §671(c)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–644, 3009–722; Pub. L. 107–56, title IV, §411(c), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 349; Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7119(a)–(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3801, 3802.)