Statutory Law - US Code - Title 5: Chapter 75: Adverse Actions


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U.S. Code Title 5: Government Organization and Employees


Chapter 75: Adverse Actions

*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.
**Selected Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law

CHAPTER 75—ADVERSE ACTIONS

SUBCHAPTER I—SUSPENSION FOR 14 DAYS OR LESS

5 USC § 7501. Definitions

For the purpose of this subchapter—
(1) “employee” means an individual in the competitive service who is not serving a probationary or trial period under an initial appointment or who has completed 1 year of current continuous employment in the same or similar positions under other than a temporary appointment limited to 1 year or less; and
(2) “suspension” means the placing of an employee, for disciplinary reasons, in a temporary status without duties and pay.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1134.)

5 USC § 7502. Actions covered

This subchapter applies to a suspension for 14 days or less, but does not apply to a suspension under section 7521 or 7532 of this title or any action initiated under section 1215 of this title.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1135; amended Pub. L. 101–12, §9(a)(2), Apr. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 35.)

5 USC § 7503. Cause and procedure

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, an employee may be suspended for 14 days or less for such cause as will promote the efficiency of the service (including discourteous conduct to the public confirmed by an immediate supervisor's report of four such instances within any one-year period or any other pattern of discourteous conduct).
(b) An employee against whom a suspension for 14 days or less is proposed is entitled to—
(1) an advance written notice stating the specific reasons for the proposed action;
(2) a reasonable time to answer orally and in writing and to furnish affidavits and other documentary evidence in support of the answer;
(3) be represented by an attorney or other representative; and
(4) a written decision and the specific reasons therefor at the earliest practicable date.

(c) Copies of the notice of proposed action, the answer of the employee if written, a summary thereof if made orally, the notice of decision and reasons therefor, and any order effecting the suspension, together with any supporting material, shall be maintained by the agency and shall be furnished to the Merit Systems Protection Board upon its request and to the employee affected upon the employee's request.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1135.)

5 USC § 7504. Regulations

The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe regulations to carry out the purpose of this subchapter.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1135.)


SUBCHAPTER II—REMOVAL, SUSPENSION FOR MORE THAN 14 DAYS, REDUCTION IN GRADE OR PAY, OR FURLOUGH FOR 30 DAYS OR LESS

5 USC § 7511. Definitions; application

(a) For the purpose of this subchapter—
(1) “employee” means—
(A) an individual in the competitive service—
(i) who is not serving a probationary or trial period under an initial appointment; or
(ii) who has completed 1 year of current continuous service under other than a temporary appointment limited to 1 year or less;

(B) a preference eligible in the excepted service who has completed 1 year of current continuous service in the same or similar positions—
(i) in an Executive agency; or
(ii) in the United States Postal Service or Postal Regulatory Commission; and

(C) an individual in the excepted service (other than a preference eligible)—
(i) who is not serving a probationary or trial period under an initial appointment pending conversion to the competitive service; or
(ii) who has completed 2 years of current continuous service in the same or similar positions in an Executive agency under other than a temporary appointment limited to 2 years or less;

(2) “suspension” has the same meaning as set forth in section 7501(2) of this title;
(3) “grade” means a level of classification under a position classification system;
(4) “pay” means the rate of basic pay fixed by law or administrative action for the position held by an employee; and
(5) “furlough” means the placing of an employee in a temporary status without duties and pay because of lack of work or funds or other nondisciplinary reasons.

(b) This subchapter does not apply to an employee—
(1) whose appointment is made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate;
(2) whose position has been determined to be of a confidential, policy-determining, policy-making or policy-advocating character by—
(A) the President for a position that the President has excepted from the competitive service;
(B) the Office of Personnel Management for a position that the Office has excepted from the competitive service; or
(C) the President or the head of an agency for a position excepted from the competitive service by statute;

(3) whose appointment is made by the President;
(4) who is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or the Foreign Service Retirement and Disability Fund, based on the service of such employee;
(5) who is described in section 8337(h)(1), relating to technicians in the National Guard;
(6) who is a member of the Foreign Service, as described in section 103 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980;
(7) whose position is within the Central Intelligence Agency or the Government Accountability Office;
(8) whose position is within the United States Postal Service, the Postal Regulatory Commission, the Panama Canal Commission, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, an intelligence component of the Department of Defense (as defined in section 1614 of title 10), or an intelligence activity of a military department covered under subchapter I of chapter 83 of title 10, unless subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section or section 1005(a) of title 39 is the basis for this subchapter's applicability;
(9) who is described in section 5102(c)(11) of this title; or
(10) who holds a position within the Veterans Health Administration which has been excluded from the competitive service by or under a provision of title 38, unless such employee was appointed to such position under section 7401(3) of such title.

(c) The Office may provide for the application of this subchapter to any position or group of positions excepted from the competitive service by regulation of the Office which is not otherwise covered by this subchapter.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1135; amended Pub. L. 101–376, §2(a), Aug. 17, 1990, 104 Stat. 461; Pub. L. 102–378, §6(a), Oct. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 1358; Pub. L. 103–359, title V, §501(l), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3430; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title XVI, §1634(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2752; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 109–435, title VI, §604(b), (f), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3241, 3242.)
Amendments
1996—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “an intelligence component of the Department of Defense (as defined in section 1614 of title 10), or an intelligence activity of a military department covered under subchapter I of chapter 83 of title 10” for “the National Security Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Central Imagery Office, or an intelligence activity of a military department covered under section 1590 of title 10”.
1994—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 103–359 inserted “the Central Imagery Office,” after “Defense Intelligence Agency,”.
1992—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 102–378, §6(a)(1), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: “whose position is with the Central Intelligence Agency, the General Accounting Office, or the Veterans Health Services and Research Administration;”.
Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 102–378, §6(a)(2)–(4), added par. (10).

5 USC § 7512. Actions covered

This subchapter applies to—
(1) a removal;
(2) a suspension for more than 14 days;
(3) a reduction in grade;
(4) a reduction in pay; and
(5) a furlough of 30 days or less;

but does not apply to—
(A) a suspension or removal under section 7532 of this title,
(B) a reduction-in-force action under section 3502 of this title,
(C) the reduction in grade of a supervisor or manager who has not completed the probationary period under section 3321(a)(2) of this title if such reduction is to the grade held immediately before becoming such a supervisor or manager,
(D) a reduction in grade or removal under section 4303 of this title, or
(E) an action initiated under section 1215 or 7521 of this title.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1136; amended Pub. L. 101–12, §9(a)(2), Apr. 10, 1989, 103 Stat. 35.)

5 USC § 7513. Cause and procedure

(a) Under regulations prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, an agency may take an action covered by this subchapter against an employee only for such cause as will promote the efficiency of the service.
(b) An employee against whom an action is proposed is entitled to—
(1) at least 30 days’ advance written notice, unless there is reasonable cause to believe the employee has committed a crime for which a sentence of imprisonment may be imposed, stating the specific reasons for the proposed action;
(2) a reasonable time, but not less than 7 days, to answer orally and in writing and to furnish affidavits and other documentary evidence in support of the answer;
(3) be represented by an attorney or other representative; and
(4) a written decision and the specific reasons therefor at the earliest practicable date.

(c) An agency may provide, by regulation, for a hearing which may be in lieu of or in addition to the opportunity to answer provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section.
(d) An employee against whom an action is taken under this section is entitled to appeal to the Merit Systems Protection Board under section 7701 of this title.
(e) Copies of the notice of proposed action, the answer of the employee when written, a summary thereof when made orally, the notice of decision and reasons therefor, and any order effecting an action covered by this subchapter, together with any supporting material, shall be maintained by the agency and shall be furnished to the Board upon its request and to the employee affected upon the employee's request.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1136.)

5 USC § 7514. Regulations

The Office of Personnel Management may prescribe regulations to carry out the purpose of this subchapter, except as it concerns any matter with respect to which the Merit Systems Protection Board may prescribe regulations.
(Added Pub. L. 95–454, title II, §204(a), Oct. 13, 1978, 92 Stat. 1137.)


SUBCHAPTER IV—NATIONAL SECURITY

5 USC § 7531. Definitions

For the purpose of this subchapter, “agency” means—
(1) the Department of State;
(2) the Department of Commerce;
(3) the Department of Justice;
(4) the Department of Defense;
(5) a military department;
(6) the Coast Guard;
(7) the Atomic Energy Commission;
(8) the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and
(9) such other agency of the Government of the United States as the President designates in the best interests of national security.

The President shall report any designation to the Committees on the Armed Services of the Congress.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 528.)
Designation of National Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, and Defense Mapping Agency as “Agencies”
Memorandum of the President of the United States, May 23, 1988, 53 F.R. 26023, provided:
Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense
I have reviewed the personnel security requirements of the National Security Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Defense Mapping Agency and the termination provisions of 5 U.S.C. Section 7532. I have determined that these Agencies are sensitive agencies and that it is in the best interests of national security that they be designated “agencies” within the meaning of that section.
Therefore, pursuant to the authority set forth in 5 U.S.C. Section 7531(9), I hereby designate the National Security Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Defense Mapping Agency as “agencies” within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. Section 7532.
You are hereby authorized and directed to report these designations to the Committees on Armed Services of the Congress and to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
Ronald Reagan.

5 USC § 7532. Suspension and removal

(a) Notwithstanding other statutes, the head of an agency may suspend without pay an employee of his agency when he considers that action necessary in the interests of national security. To the extent that the head of the agency determines that the interests of national security permit, the suspended employee shall be notified of the reasons for the suspension. Within 30 days after the notification, the suspended employee is entitled to submit to the official designated by the head of the agency statements or affidavits to show why he should be restored to duty.
(b) Subject to subsection (c) of this section, the head of an agency may remove an employee suspended under subsection (a) of this section when, after such investigation and review as he considers necessary, he determines that removal is necessary or advisable in the interests of national security. The determination of the head of the agency is final.
(c) An employee suspended under subsection (a) of this section who—
(1) has a permanent or indefinite appointment;
(2) has completed his probationary or trial period; and
(3) is a citizen of the United States;

is entitled, after suspension and before removal, to—
(A) a written statement of the charges against him within 30 days after suspension, which may be amended within 30 days thereafter and which shall be stated as specifically as security considerations permit;
(B) an opportunity within 30 days thereafter, plus an additional 30 days if the charges are amended, to answer the charges and submit affidavits;
(C) a hearing, at the request of the employee, by an agency authority duly constituted for this purpose;
(D) a review of his case by the head of the agency or his designee, before a decision adverse to the employee is made final; and
(E) a written statement of the decision of the head of the agency.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 529.)

5 USC § 7533. Effect on other statutes

This subchapter does not impair the powers vested in the Atomic Energy Commission by chapter 23 of title 42, or the requirement in section 2201(d) of title 42 that adequate provision be made for administrative review of a determination to dismiss an employee of the Atomic Energy Commission.
(Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 529.)