Statutory Law - US Code - Title 22: Chapter 32: Foreign Assistance


««« Previous Chapter  |  Next Chapter »»»

U.S. Code Title 22: Foreign Relations and Intercourse


Chapter 32: Foreign Assistance

*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.
**Selected Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law

CHAPTER 32—FOREIGN ASSISTANCE

SUBCHAPTER I—INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Part VIII—International Narcotics Control

22 USC § 2291. Policy, general authorities, coordination, foreign police actions, definitions, and other provisions

(a) Policy and general authorities
(1) Statements of policy
(A) International narcotics trafficking poses an unparalleled transnational threat in today's world, and its suppression is among the most important foreign policy objectives of the United States.
(B) Under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, and under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, the parties are required to criminalize certain drug-related activities, provide appropriately severe penalties, and cooperate in the extradition of accused offenders.
(C) International narcotics control programs should include, as priority goals, the suppression of the illicit manufacture of and trafficking in narcotic and psychotropic drugs, money laundering, and precursor chemical diversion, and the progressive elimination of the illicit cultivation of the crops from which narcotic and psychotropic drugs are derived.
(D) International criminal activities, particularly international narcotics trafficking, money laundering, and corruption, endanger political and economic stability and democratic development, and assistance for the prevention and suppression of international criminal activities should be a priority for the United States.
(E) The international community should provide assistance, where appropriate, to those producer and transit countries which require assistance in discharging these primary obligations.
(F) The objective of the United States in dealing with the problem of international money laundering is to ensure that countries adopt comprehensive domestic measures against money laundering and cooperate with each other in narcotics money laundering investigations, prosecutions, and related forfeiture actions.
(G) Effective international cooperation is necessary to control the illicit cultivation, production, and smuggling of, trafficking in, and abuse of narcotic and psychotropic drugs.

(2) In order to promote such cooperation, the President is authorized to conclude agreements, including reciprocal maritime agreements, with other countries to facilitate control of the production, processing, transportation, and distribution of narcotics analgesics, including opium and its derivatives, other narcotic and psychotropic drugs, and other controlled substances.
(3) In order to promote international cooperation in combatting international trafficking in illicit narcotics, it shall be the policy of the United States to use its voice and vote in multilateral development banks to promote the development and implementation in the major illicit drug producing countries of programs for the reduction and eventual eradication of narcotic drugs and other controlled substances, including appropriate assistance in conjunction with effective programs of illicit crop eradication.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President is authorized to furnish assistance to any country or international organization, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, for the control of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances, or for other anticrime purposes.
(b) Coordination of all United States antinarcotics assistance to foreign countries
(1) Responsibility of Secretary of State
Consistent with chapter 1 of the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988, the Secretary of State shall be responsible for coordinating all assistance provided by the United States Government to support international efforts to combat illicit narcotics production or trafficking.
(2) Rule of construction
Nothing contained in this subsection or section 2291h(b) of this title shall be construed to limit or impair the authority or responsibility of any other Federal agency with respect to law enforcement, domestic security operations, or intelligence activities as defined in Executive Order 12333.
(c) Participation in foreign police actions
(1) Prohibition on effecting an arrest
No officer or employee of the United States may directly effect an arrest in any foreign country as part of any foreign police action with respect to narcotics control efforts, notwithstanding any other provision of law.
(2) Participation in arrest actions
Paragraph (1) does not prohibit an officer or employee of the United States, with the approval of the United States chief of mission, from being present when foreign officers are effecting an arrest or from assisting foreign officers who are effecting an arrest.
(3) Exception for exigent, threatening circumstances
Paragraph (1) does not prohibit an officer or employee from taking direct action to protect life or safety if exigent circumstances arise which are unanticipated and which pose an immediate threat to United States officers or employees, officers or employees of a foreign government, or members of the public.
(4) Exception for maritime law enforcement
With the agreement of a foreign country, paragraph (1) does not apply with respect to maritime law enforcement operations in the territorial sea or archipelagic waters of that country.
(5) Interrogations
No officer or employee of the United States may interrogate or be present during the interrogation of any United States person arrested in any foreign country with respect to narcotics control efforts without the written consent of such person.
(6) Exception for Status of Forces arrangements
This subsection does not apply to the activities of the United States Armed Forces in carrying out their responsibilities under applicable Status of Forces arrangements.
(d) Use of herbicides for aerial eradication
(1) Monitoring
The President, with the assistance of appropriate Federal agencies, shall monitor any use under this part of a herbicide for aerial eradication in order to determine the impact of such use on the environment and on the health of individuals.
(2) Annual reports
In the annual report required by section 2291h(a) of this title, the President shall report on the impact on the environment and the health of individuals of the use under this part of a herbicide for aerial eradication.
(3) Report upon determination of harm to environment or health
If the President determines that any such use is harmful to the environment or the health of individuals, the President shall immediately report that determination to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, together with such recommendations as the President deems appropriate.
(e) Definitions
For purposes of this part and other provisions of this chapter relating specifically to international narcotics matters—
(1) the term “legal and law enforcement measures” means—
(A) the enactment and implementation of laws and regulations or the implementation of existing laws and regulations to provide for the progressive control, reduction, and gradual elimination of the illicit cultivation, production, processing, transportation, and distribution of narcotic drugs and other controlled substances; and
(B) the effective organization, staffing, equipping, funding, and activation of those governmental authorities responsible for narcotics control;

(2) the term “major illicit drug producing country” means a country in which—
(A) 1,000 hectares or more of illicit opium poppy is cultivated or harvested during a year;
(B) 1,000 hectares or more of illicit coca is cultivated or harvested during a year; or
(C) 5,000 hectares or more of illicit cannabis is cultivated or harvested during a year, unless the President determines that such illicit cannabis production does not significantly affect the United States;

(3) the term “narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances” has the same meaning as is given by any applicable international narcotics control agreement or domestic law of the country or countries concerned;
(4) the term “United States assistance” means—
(A) any assistance under this chapter (including programs under subpart IV of part II of this subchapter, relating to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation), other than—
(i) assistance under this part,
(ii) any other narcotics-related assistance under this subchapter (including part IV of subchapter II of this chapter), but any such assistance provided under this clause shall be subject to the prior notification procedures applicable to reprogrammings pursuant to section 2394–1 of this title,
(iii) disaster relief assistance, including any assistance under part IX of this subchapter,
(iv) assistance which involves the provision of food (including monetization of food) or medicine, and
(v) assistance for refugees;

(B) sales, or financing on any terms, under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.];
(C) the provision of agricultural commodities, other than food, under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.]; and
(D) financing under the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 [12 U.S.C. 635 et seq.];

(5) the term “major drug-transit country” means a country—
(A) that is a significant direct source of illicit narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances significantly affecting the United States; or
(B) through which are transported such drugs or substances; and

(6) the term “precursor chemical” has the same meaning as the term “listed chemical” has under paragraph (33) of section 802 of title 21;
(7) the term “major money laundering country” means a country whose financial institutions engage in currency transactions involving significant amounts of proceeds from international narcotics trafficking; and
(8) the term “appropriate congressional committees” means the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §481, as added Pub. L. 92–352, title V, §503, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 496; amended Pub. L. 93–189, §11(a), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 719; Pub. L. 94–329, title V, §504(b), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 95–384, §§3, 4, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 96–92, §3(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 97–113, title V, §502(a)(1), (b), title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1538, 1539, 1560; Pub. L. 98–164, title X, §1003, Nov. 22, 1983, 97 Stat. 1053; Pub. L. 99–83, title VI, §§604–606, 618, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 228, 229, 233; Pub. L. 99–570, title II, §§2005, 2008, 2009, 2017, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–61, 3207–64, 3207–68; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title V, §585(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–184; Pub. L. 100–204, title VIII, §805, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §578(e)(2), (g)(1), (3), (h), (i), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–47, 2268–48; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4202(b), 4401–4403, 4405(a), 4407(a), (b)(1), 4502, 4802(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4267, 4275–4277, 4281, 4285, 4294; Pub. L. 101–231, §§15, 17(a)–(f), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1963–1965; Pub. L. 102–550, title XV, §1519, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4060; Pub. L. 102–583, §§4(a)–(d), 5(b), 6(b)(1)–(3), 11(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4914, 4915, 4931, 4932, 4934; Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(a), (b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4691; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §131(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1429; Pub. L. 105–20, §2(b), June 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 234; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Q), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)
References in Text
The National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is subtitle A of title I of Pub. L. 100–690, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4181, as amended. Chapter 1 of the Act was classified principally to subchapter I (§1501 et seq.) of chapter 20 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–690, title I, §1009, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4188. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
Executive Order Number 12333, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is set out as a note under section 401 of Title 50, War and National Defense.
This chapter, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(A), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, known as the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of this title and Tables.
The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(B), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 39 (§2751 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.
The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(C), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified principally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of Title 7 and Tables.
The Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(D), is act July 31, 1945, ch. 341, 59 Stat. 526, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§635 et seq.) of chapter 6A of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 635 of Title 12 and Tables.

22 USC § 2291–4. Official immunity for authorized employees and agents of United States and foreign countries engaged in interdiction of aircraft used in illicit drug trafficking

(a) Employees and agents of foreign countries
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall not be unlawful for authorized employees or agents of a foreign country (including members of the armed forces of that country) to interdict or attempt to interdict an aircraft in that country's territory or airspace if—
(1) that aircraft is reasonably suspected to be primarily engaged in illicit drug trafficking; and
(2) the President of the United States has, during the 12-month period ending on the date of the interdiction, certified to Congress with respect to that country that—
(A) interdiction is necessary because of the extraordinary threat posed by illicit drug trafficking to the national security of that country; and
(B) the country has appropriate procedures in place to protect against innocent loss of life in the air and on the ground in connection with interdiction, which shall at a minimum include effective means to identify and warn an aircraft before the use of force directed against the aircraft.
(b) Employees and agents of United States
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it shall not be unlawful for authorized employees or agents of the United States (including members of the Armed Forces of the United States) to provide assistance for the interdiction actions of foreign countries authorized under subsection (a) of this section. The provision of such assistance shall not give rise to any civil action seeking money damages or any other form of relief against the United States or its employees or agents (including members of the Armed Forces of the United States).
(c) Annual report
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), not later than February 1 each year, the President shall submit to Congress a report on the assistance provided under subsection (b) of this section during the preceding calendar year. Each report shall include for the calendar year covered by such report the following:
(A) A list specifying each country for which a certification referred to in subsection (a)(2) of this section was in effect for purposes of that subsection during any portion of such calendar year, including the nature of the illicit drug trafficking threat to each such country.
(B) A detailed explanation of the procedures referred to in subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section in effect for each country listed under subparagraph (A), including any training and other mechanisms in place to ensure adherence to such procedures.
(C) A complete description of any assistance provided under subsection (b) of this section.
(D) A summary description of the aircraft interception activity for which the United States Government provided any form of assistance under subsection (b) of this section.

(2) In the case of a report required to be submitted under paragraph (1) to the congressional intelligence committees (as defined in section 401a of title 50), the submittal date for such report shall be as provided in section 415b of title 50.
(3) Each report under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
(d) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
(1) The terms “interdict” and “interdiction”, with respect to an aircraft, mean to damage, render inoperative, or destroy the aircraft.
(2) The term “illicit drug trafficking” means illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, and other controlled substances, as such activities are described by any international narcotics control agreement to which the United States is a signatory, or by the domestic law of the country in whose territory or airspace the interdiction is occurring.
(3) The term “assistance” includes operational, training, intelligence, logistical, technical, and administrative assistance.
(Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1012, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2837; Pub. L. 107–108, title V, §503, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1405; Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §811(b)(6), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2425.)

22 USC § 2291–5. Provision of nonlethal equipment to foreign law enforcement organizations for cooperative illicit narcotics control activities

(a) In general
(1) Subject to paragraph (2), the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, in consultation with the Secretary of State, may transfer or lease each year nonlethal equipment to foreign law enforcement organizations for the purpose of establishing and carrying out cooperative illicit narcotics control activities.
(2)(A) The Administrator may transfer or lease equipment under paragraph (1) only if the equipment is not designated as a munitions item or controlled on the United States Munitions List pursuant to section 2778 of this title.
(B) The value of each piece of equipment transferred or leased under paragraph (1) may not exceed $100,000.
(b) Additional requirement
The Administrator shall provide for the maintenance and repair of any equipment transferred or leased under subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Notification requirement
Before the export of any item authorized for transfer under subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall provide written notice to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.
(d) Sense of Congress
It is the sense of Congress that—
(1) all United States law enforcement personnel serving in Mexico should be accredited the same status under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Immunity as other diplomatic personnel serving at United States posts in Mexico; and
(2) all Mexican narcotics law enforcement personnel serving in the United States should be accorded the same diplomatic status as Drug Enforcement Administration personnel serving in Mexico.
(Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title VIII, §843, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–704.)

22 USC § 2291a. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Fiscal year authorization; availability of funds
(1) To carry out the purposes of section 2291 of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated to the President $147,783,000 for fiscal year 1993 and $171,500,000 for fiscal year 1994.
(2) Amounts appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.
(b) Procurement of weapons and ammunition
(1) Prohibition
Except as provided in paragraph (2), funds made available to carry out this part shall not be made available for the procurement of weapons or ammunition.
(2) Exceptions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to funds for the procurement of—
(A) weapons or ammunition provided only for the defensive arming of aircraft used for narcotics-related purposes, or
(B) firearms and related ammunition provided only for defensive purposes to employees or contract personnel of the Department of State engaged in activities under this part,

if, at least 15 days before obligating those funds, the President notifies the appropriate congressional committees in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.
(c) Contributions and reimbursement
(1) To ensure local commitment to the activities assisted under this part, a country receiving assistance under this part should bear an appropriate share of the costs of any narcotics control program, project, or activity for which such assistance is to be provided. A country may bear such costs on an “in kind” basis.
(2)(A) The President is authorized to accept contributions from foreign governments to carry out the purposes of this part. Such contributions shall be deposited as an offsetting collection to the applicable appropriation account and may be used under the same terms and conditions as funds appropriated pursuant to this part.
(B) At the time of submission of the annual congressional presentation documents required by section 2394(a) of this title, the President shall provide a detailed report on any contributions received in the preceding fiscal year, the amount of such contributions, and the purposes for which such contributions were used.
(3) The President is authorized to provide assistance under this part on a reimbursable basis. Such reimbursements shall be deposited as an offsetting collection to the applicable appropriation and may be used under the same terms and conditions as funds appropriated pursuant to this part.
(d) Administrative assistance
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), personnel funded pursuant to this section are authorized to provide administrative assistance to personnel assigned to the bureau designated by the Secretary of State to replace the Bureau for International Narcotics Matters.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that it would result in a reduction in funds available for antinarcotics assistance to foreign countries.
(e) Advance notification of transfer of seized assets
The President shall notify the appropriate congressional committees at least 10 days prior to any transfer by the United States Government to a foreign country for narcotics control purposes of any property or funds seized by or otherwise forfeited to the United States Government in connection with narcotics-related activity.
(f) Treatment of funds
Funds transferred to and consolidated with funds appropriated pursuant to this part may be made available on such terms and conditions as are applicable to funds appropriated pursuant to this part. Funds so transferred or consolidated shall be apportioned directly to the bureau within the Department of State responsible for administering this part.
(g) Excess property
For purposes of this part, the Secretary of State may use the authority of section 2358 of this title, without regard to the restrictions of such section, to receive nonlethal excess property from any agency of the United States Government for the purpose of providing such property to a foreign government under the same terms and conditions as funds authorized to be appropriated for the purposes of this part.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §482, as added Pub. L. 92–352, title V, §503, July 13, 1972, 86 Stat. 497; amended Pub. L. 93–189, §11(b), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 94–329, title V, §504(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 95–92, §3, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 614; Pub. L. 95–384, §5, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 96–92, §3(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 701; Pub. L. 96–533, title IV, §402(a), (b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3149; Pub. L. 97–113, title V, §502(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1539; Pub. L. 99–83, title VI, §§602, 608, 614, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 228, 229, 231; Pub. L. 99–529, title IV, §401, Oct. 24, 1986, 100 Stat. 3019; Pub. L. 99–570, title II, §2002, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–60; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4201, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4267; Pub. L. 101–231, §§16, 17(g), Dec. 13, 1989, 103 Stat. 1964, 1965; Pub. L. 102–583, §§3, 4(e), 6(b)(4), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4914, 4915, 4932; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §164(a), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 411; Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(c), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4692; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §131(b), (c), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1429.)
Amendments

22 USC § 2291b. Prohibition on use of foreign assistance for reimbursements for drug crop eradications

Funds made available to carry out this chapter may not be used to reimburse persons whose illicit drug crops are eradicated.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §483, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title VI, §609, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 230.)

22 USC § 2291c. Requirements relating to aircraft and other equipment

(a) Retention of title to aircraft
(1) In general
(A) Except as provided in paragraph (2), any aircraft made available to a foreign country under this part, or made available to a foreign country primarily for narcotics-related purposes under any other provision of law, shall be provided only on a lease or loan basis.
(B) Subparagraph (A) applies to aircraft made available at any time after October 27, 1986 (which was the date of enactment of the International Narcotics Control Act of 1986).
(2) Exceptions
(A) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that—
(i) the application of that paragraph with respect to particular aircraft would be contrary to the national interest of the United States; and
(ii) the President notifies the appropriate congressional committees in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.

(B) Paragraph (1) does not apply with respect to aircraft made available to a foreign country under any provision of law that authorizes property that has been civilly or criminally forfeited to the United States to be made available to foreign countries.
(3) Assistance for leasing of aircraft
(A) For purposes of satisfying the requirement of paragraph (1), funds made available for the “Foreign Military Financing Program” under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2763] may be used to finance the leasing of aircraft under chapter 6 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2796 et seq.].
(B) Section 61(a)(3) of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2796(a)(3)] shall not apply with respect to leases so financed; rather the entire cost of any such lease (including any renewals) shall be an initial, one time payment of the amount which would be the sales price for the aircraft if they were sold under section 21(a)(1)(B) or section 22 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2761(a)(1)(B), 2762] (as appropriate).
(C) To the extent that aircraft so leased were acquired under chapter 5 of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2795 et seq.], funds used pursuant to this paragraph to finance such leases shall be credited to the Special Defense Acquisition Fund under chapter 5 of that Act (excluding the amount of funds that reflects the charges described in section 21(e)(1) of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2761(e)(1)]). The funds described in the parenthetical clause of the preceding sentence shall be available for payments consistent with sections 37(a) and 43(b) of that Act [22 U.S.C. 2777(a), 2792(b)].
(b) Permissible uses of aircraft and other equipment
The President shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that aircraft and other equipment made available to foreign countries under this part are used only in ways that are consistent with the purposes for which such equipment was made available.
(c) Reports
In the reports submitted pursuant to section 2291h(a) of this title, the President shall discuss—
(1) any evidence indicating misuse by a foreign country of aircraft or other equipment made available under this part, and
(2) the actions taken by the United States Government to prevent future misuse of such equipment by that foreign country.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §484, as added Pub. L. 99–570, title II, §2003, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–61; amended Pub. L. 101–623, §7, Nov. 21, 1990, 104 Stat. 3355; Pub. L. 102–583, §4(f)(1), (2)(D), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4916, 4917.)
References in Text
The Arms Export Control Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is Pub. L. 90–629, Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1320, as amended. Chapters 5 and 6 of the Act are classified generally to subchapters V (§2795 et seq.) and VI (§2796 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 39 of this title. Section 61(a)(3) of the Act was redesignated section 61(a)(4), and a new section 61(a)(3) was added, by Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §731(e)(2), (3), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 503. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2751 of this title and Tables.
Codification
The text of subsecs. (a) and (b) of section 2291h of this title, which were redesignated as subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section by Pub. L. 102–583, §4(f)(2)(D), was based on section 489(a) and (b) of Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4507, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4286; amended Pub. L. 102–583, §4(f)(2)(B), (C), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4917.

22 USC § 2291d. Records of aircraft use

(a) Requirement to maintain records
The President shall maintain detailed records on the use of any aircraft made available to a foreign country under this part, including aircraft made available before October 27, 1986.
(b) Congressional access to records
The President shall make the records maintained pursuant to subsection (a) of this section available to the Congress upon a request of the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives or the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §485, as added Pub. L. 99–570, title II, §2003, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–61; amended Pub. L. 102–583, §4(f)(3), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4917.)

22 USC § 2291e. Reallocation of funds withheld from countries which fail to take adequate steps to halt illicit drug production or trafficking

If any funds authorized to be appropriated for any fiscal year for assistance under this chapter are not used for assistance for the country for which those funds were allocated because of the requirements of section 2291j of this title or any other provision of law requiring the withholding of assistance for countries that have not taken adequate steps to halt illicit drug production or trafficking, the President shall use those funds for additional assistance for those countries which have met their illicit drug eradication targets or have otherwise taken significant steps to halt illicit drug production or trafficking, as follows:
(1) International narcotics control assistance
Those funds may be transferred to and consolidated with the funds appropriated to carry out this part in order to provide additional narcotics control assistance for those countries. Funds transferred under this paragraph may only be used to provide increased funding for activities previously justified to the Congress. Transfers may be made under this paragraph without regard to the 20-percent increase limitation contained in section 2360(a) of this title. This paragraph does not apply with respect to funds made available for assistance under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].
(2) Other assistance
Any such funds not used under paragraph (1) shall be reprogrammed within the account for which they were appropriated (subject to the regular reprogramming procedures under section 2394–1 of this title) in order to provide additional assistance for those countries.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §486, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4206(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4270; amended Pub. L. 102–583, §6(b)(5), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4932; Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(d), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4692.)

22 USC § 2291f. Prohibition on assistance to drug traffickers

(a) Prohibition
The President shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that assistance under this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] is not provided to or through any individual or entity that the President knows or has reason to believe—
(1) has been convicted of a violation of, or a conspiracy to violate, any law or regulation of the United States, a State or the District of Columbia, or a foreign country relating to narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances; or
(2) is or has been an illicit trafficker in any such controlled substance or is or has been a knowing assistor, abettor, conspirator, or colluder with others in the illicit trafficking in any such substance.
(b) Regulations
The President shall issue regulations specifying the steps to be taken in carrying out this section.
(c) Congressional review of regulations
Regulations issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section shall be submitted to the Congress before they take effect.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §487, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4503, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4285; amended Pub. L. 102–583, §6(b)(6), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4932; Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(e), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4692.)

22 USC § 2291g. Limitations on acquisition of real property and construction of facilities

(a) Acquisition of real property
(1) Prohibition
Funds made available to carry out this part may not be used to acquire (by purchase or other means) any land or other real property for use by foreign military, paramilitary, or law enforcement forces.
(2) Exception for certain leases
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the acquisition of real property by lease of a duration not to exceed 2 years.
(b) Construction of facilities
(1) Limitation
Funds made available to carry out this part may not be used for construction of facilities for use by foreign military, paramilitary, or law enforcement forces unless, at least 15 days before obligating funds for such construction, the President notifies the appropriate congressional committees in accordance with procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.
(2) Exception
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the construction of facilities which would require the obligation of less than $750,000 under this part.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §488, as added Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4505, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4285; amended Pub. L. 102–583, §4(g), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4917; Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §671(3), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1407.)

22 USC § 2291h. Reporting requirements

(a) International narcotics control strategy report
Not later than March 1 of each year, the President shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, a report containing the following:
(1) For each country that received assistance under this part for either of the 2 preceding fiscal years, a report on the extent to which the country has—
(A) met the goals and objectives of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, including action on such issues as illicit cultivation, production, distribution, sale, transport, and financing, and money laundering, asset seizure, extradition, mutual legal assistance, law enforcement and transit cooperation, precursor chemical control, and demand reduction;
(B) accomplished the goals described in an applicable bilateral narcotics agreement with the United States or a multilateral agreement; and
(C) taken legal and law enforcement measures to prevent and punish public corruption, especially by senior government officials, that facilitates the production, processing, or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances, or that discourages the investigation or prosecution of such acts.

(2)(A) A description of the policies adopted, agreements concluded, and programs implemented by the Department of State in pursuit of its delegated responsibilities for international narcotics control, including appropriate information on the status of negotiations between the United States and other countries on updated extradition treaties, mutual legal assistance treaties, precursor chemical controls, money laundering, and agreements pursuant to section 2015 of the International Narcotics Act of 1986 (relating to interdiction procedures for vessels of foreign registry).
(B) Information on multilateral and bilateral strategies with respect to money laundering pursued by the Department of State, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Treasury, and other relevant United States Government agencies, either collectively or individually, to ensure the cooperation of foreign governments with respect to narcotics-related money laundering and to demonstrate that all United States Government agencies are pursuing a common strategy with respect to major money laundering countries. The report shall include specific detail to demonstrate that all United States Government agencies are pursuing a common strategy with respect to achieving international cooperation against money laundering and are pursuing a common strategy with respect to major money laundering countries, including a summary of United States objectives on a country-by-country basis.
(3) The identity of those countries which are—
(A) major illicit drug producing countries or major drug-transit countries as determined under section 2291j(h) of this title;
(B) major sources of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit narcotics; or
(C) major money laundering countries.

(4) In addition, for each country identified pursuant to paragraph (3), the following:
(A) A description of the plans, programs, and timetables adopted by such country, including efforts to meet the objectives of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, and a discussion of the adequacy of the legal and law enforcement measures taken and the accomplishments achieved in accord with those plans.
(B) Whether as a matter of government policy or practice, such country encourages or facilitates the illicit production or distribution of narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions; and whether any senior official of the government of such country engages in, encourages, or facilitates the illicit production or distribution of such drugs or substances, or the laundering of proceeds from illegal drug transactions.

(5) In addition, for each country identified pursuant to paragraph (3)(A) or (3)(B), a detailed status report, with such information as can be reliably obtained, on the narcotic or psychotropic drugs or other controlled substances which are being cultivated, produced, or processed in or transported through such country, noting significant changes in conditions, such as increases or decreases in the illicit cultivation and manufacture of and traffic in such drugs and substances.
(6) In addition, for those countries identified pursuant to paragraph (3)(C)—
(A) which countries are parties to international agreements on a method for maintaining records of transactions of an established list of precursor and essential chemicals;
(B) which countries have established a procedure by which such records may be made available to United States law enforcement authorities; and
(C) which countries have enacted national chemical control legislation which would impose specific recordkeeping and reporting requirements for listed chemicals, establish a system of permits or declarations for imports and exports of listed chemicals, and authorize government officials to seize or suspend shipments of listed chemicals.

(7) In addition, for those countries identified pursuant to paragraph (3)(D) the following:
(A)(i) Which countries have financial institutions engaging in currency transactions involving international narcotics trafficking proceeds that include significant amounts of United States currency or currency derived from illegal drug sales in the United States or that otherwise significantly affect the United States;
(ii) which countries identified pursuant to clause (i) have not reached agreement with the United States authorities on a mechanism for exchanging adequate records in connection with narcotics investigations and proceedings; and
(iii) which countries identified pursuant to clause (ii)—
(I) are negotiating in good faith with the United States to establish such a record-exchange mechanism, or
(II) have adopted laws or regulations that ensure the availability to appropriate United States Government personnel and those of other governments of adequate records in connection with narcotics investigations and proceedings.

(B) Which countries—
(i) have ratified the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and are taking steps to implement that Convention and other applicable agreements and conventions such as the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force, the policy directive of the European Community, the legislative guidelines of the Organization of American States, and other similar declarations; and
(ii) have entered into bilateral agreements for the exchange of information on money-laundering with countries other than the United States.

(C) Findings on each country's adoption of law and regulations considered essential to prevent narcotics-related money laundering. Such findings shall include whether a country has—
(i) criminalized narcotics money laundering;
(ii) required banks and other financial institutions to know and record the identity of customers engaging in significant transactions, including the recording of large currency transactions at thresholds appropriate to that country's economic situation;
(iii) required banks and other financial institutions to maintain, for an adequate time, records necessary to reconstruct significant transactions through financial institutions in order to be able to respond quickly to information requests from appropriate government authorities in narcotics-related money laundering cases;
(iv) required or allowed financial institutions to report suspicious transactions;
(v) established systems for identifying, tracing, freezing, seizing, and forfeiting narcotics-related assets;
(vi) enacted laws for the sharing of seized narcotics assets with other governments;
(vii) cooperated, when requested, with appropriate law enforcement agencies of other governments investigating financial crimes related to narcotics; and
(viii) addressed the problem on international transportation of illegal-source currency and monetary instruments.

The report shall also detail instances of refusals to cooperate with foreign governments, and any actions taken by the United States Government and any international organization to address such obstacles, including the imposition of sanctions or penalties.
(8)(A) A separate section that contains the following:
(i) An identification of the five countries that exported the largest amount of pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine (including the salts, optical isomers, or salts of optical isomers of such chemicals, and also including any products or substances containing such chemicals) during the preceding calendar year.
(ii) An identification of the five countries that imported the largest amount of the chemicals described in clause (i) during the preceding calendar year and have the highest rate of diversion of such chemicals for use in the illicit production of methamphetamine (either in that country or in another country).
(iii) An economic analysis of the total worldwide production of the chemicals described in clause (i) as compared to the legitimate demand for such chemicals worldwide.

(B) The identification of countries that imported the largest amount of chemicals under subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be based on the following:
(i) An economic analysis that estimates the legitimate demand for such chemicals in such countries as compared to the actual or estimated amount of such chemicals that is imported into such countries.
(ii) The best available data and other information regarding the production of methamphetamine in such countries and the diversion of such chemicals for use in the production of methamphetamine.
(b) Annual reports on assistance
(1) In general
At the time that the report required by subsection (a) of this section is submitted each year, the Secretary of State, in consultation with appropriate United States Government agencies, shall report to the appropriate committees of the Congress on the assistance provided or proposed to be provided by the United States Government during the preceding fiscal year, the current fiscal year, and the next fiscal year to support international efforts to combat illicit narcotics production or trafficking.
(2) Information to be included
Each report pursuant to this subsection shall—
(A) specify the amount and nature of the assistance provided or to be provided;
(B) include, for each country identified in subsection (a)(3)(A) of this section, information from the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Customs Service, and the Coast Guard describing in detail—
(i) the assistance provided or to be provided to such country by that agency, and
(ii) the assistance provided or to be provided to that agency by such country,

with respect to narcotic control efforts during the preceding fiscal year, the current fiscal year, and the next fiscal year; and
(C) list all transfers, which were made by the United States Government during the preceding fiscal year, to a foreign country for narcotics control purposes of any property seized by or otherwise forfeited to the United States Government in connection with narcotics-related activity, including an estimate of the fair market value and physical condition of each item of property transferred.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §489, as added Pub. L. 102–583, §5(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4917; amended Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(f)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4692; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1112(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §722(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 268.)

22 USC § 2291j. Annual certification procedures

(a) Withholding of bilateral assistance and opposition to multilateral development assistance
(1) Bilateral assistance
Fifty percent of the United States assistance allocated each fiscal year in the report required by section 2413 of this title for each major illicit drug producing country, major drug-transit country, or country identified pursuant to clause (i) or (ii) of section 2291h(a)(8)(A) of this title shall be withheld from obligation and expenditure, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. This paragraph shall not apply with respect to a country if the President determines that its application to that country would be contrary to the national interest of the United States, except that any such determination shall not take effect until at least 15 days after the President submits written notification of that determination to the appropriate congressional committees in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.
(2) Multilateral assistance
The Secretary of the Treasury shall instruct the United States Executive Director of each multilateral development bank to vote, on and after March 1 of each year, against any loan or other utilization of the funds of their respective institution to or for any major illicit drug producing country or major drug-transit country (as determined under subsection (h) of this section) or country identified pursuant to clause (i) or (ii) of section 2291h(a)(8)(A) of this title, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “multilateral development bank” means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
(b) Certification procedures
(1) What must be certified
Subject to subsection (d) of this section, the assistance withheld from a country pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section may be obligated and expended, and the requirement of subsection (a)(2) of this section to vote against multilateral development bank assistance to a country shall not apply, if the President determines and certifies to the Congress, at the time of the submission of the report required by section 2291h(a) of this title, that—
(A) during the previous year the country has cooperated fully with the United States, or has taken adequate steps on its own, to achieve full compliance with the goals and objectives established by the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances; or
(B) for a country that would not otherwise qualify for certification under subparagraph (A), the vital national interests of the United States require that the assistance withheld pursuant to subsection (a)(1) of this section be provided and that the United States not vote against multilateral development bank assistance for that country pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section.
(2) Considerations regarding cooperation
In making the determination described in paragraph (1)(A), the President shall consider the extent to which the country has—
(A) met the goals and objectives of the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, including action on such issues as illicit cultivation, production, distribution, sale, transport and financing, and money laundering, asset seizure, extradition, mutual legal assistance, law enforcement and transit cooperation, precursor chemical control, and demand reduction;
(B) accomplished the goals described in an applicable bilateral narcotics agreement with the United States or a multilateral agreement; and
(C) taken legal and law enforcement measures to prevent and punish public corruption, especially by senior government officials, that facilitates the production, processing, or shipment of narcotic and psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances, or that discourages the investigation or prosecution of such acts.
(3) Information to be included in national interest certification
If the President makes a certification with respect to a country pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), the President shall include in such certification—
(A) a full and complete description of the vital national interests placed at risk if United States bilateral assistance to that country is terminated pursuant to this section and multilateral development bank assistance is not provided to such country; and
(B) a statement weighing the risk described in subparagraph (A) against the risks posed to the vital national interests of the United States by the failure of such country to cooperate fully with the United States in combating narcotics or to take adequate steps to combat narcotics on its own.
(c) Licit opium producing countries
The President may make a certification under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section with respect to a major illicit drug producing country, or major drug-transit country, that is a producer of licit opium only if the President determines that such country maintains licit production and stockpiles at levels no higher than those consistent with licit market demand, and has taken adequate steps to prevent significant diversion of its licit cultivation and production into the illicit markets and to prevent illicit cultivation and production.
(d) Congressional review
Subsection (e) of this section shall apply if, within 30 calendar days after receipt of a certification submitted under subsection (b) of this section at the time of submission of the report required by section 2291h(a) of this title, the Congress enacts a joint resolution disapproving the determination of the President contained in such certification.
(e) Denial of assistance for countries decertified
If the President does not make a certification under subsection (b) of this section with respect to a country or the Congress enacts a joint resolution disapproving such certification, then until such time as the conditions specified in subsection (f) of this section are satisfied—
(1) funds may not be obligated for United States assistance for that country, and funds previously obligated for United States assistance for that country may not be expended for the purpose of providing assistance for that country; and
(2) the requirement to vote against multilateral development bank assistance pursuant to subsection (a)(2) of this section shall apply with respect to that country, without regard to the date specified in that subsection.
(f) Recertification
Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to a country described in that subsection until—
(1) the President, at the time of submission of the report required by section 2291h(a) of this title, makes a certification under subsection (b)(1)(A) or (b)(1)(B) of this section with respect to that country, and the Congress does not enact a joint resolution under subsection (d) of this section disapproving the determination of the President contained in that certification; or
(2) the President, at any other time, makes the certification described in subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section with respect to that country, except that this paragraph applies only if either—
(A) the President also certifies that—
(i) that country has undergone a fundamental change in government, or
(ii) there has been a fundamental change in the conditions that were the reason—
(I) why the President had not made a certification with respect to that country under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section, or
(II) if he had made such a certification and the Congress enacted a joint resolution disapproving the determination contained in the certification, why the Congress enacted that joint resolution; or

(B) the Congress enacts a joint resolution approving the determination contained in the certification under subsection (b)(1)(B) of this section.

Any certification under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (2) shall discuss the justification for the certification.
(g) Senate procedures
Any joint resolution under this section shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.
(h) Determining major drug-transit and major illicit drug producing countries
Not later than November 1 of each year, the President shall notify the appropriate committees of the Congress of which countries have been determined to be major drug-transit countries, and which countries have been determined to be major illicit drug producing countries, for purposes of this chapter.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. I, §490, as added Pub. L. 102–583, §5(a), Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4924; amended Pub. L. 103–447, title I, §101(g)(1), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4692; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1112(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §722(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 268.)

22 USC § 2291j–1. International drug control certification procedures

During any fiscal year, funds that would otherwise be withheld from obligation or expenditure under section 2291j of this title may be obligated or expended beginning October 1 of such fiscal year provided that:
(1) Report
Not later than September 15 of the previous fiscal year the President has submitted to the appropriate congressional committees a report identifying each country determined by the President to be a major drug transit country or major illicit drug producing country as defined in section 2291(e) of this title.
(2) Designation and justification
In each report under paragraph (1), the President shall also—
(A) designate each country, if any, identified in such report that has failed demonstrably, during the previous 12 months, to make substantial efforts—
(i) to adhere to its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements; and
(ii) to take the counternarcotics measures set forth in section 2291h(a)(1) of this title; and

(B) include a justification for each country so designated.
(3) Limitation on assistance for designated countries
In the case of a country identified in a report under paragraph (1) that is also designated under paragraph (2) in the report, United States assistance may be provided to such country in the subsequent fiscal year only if the President determines and reports to the appropriate congressional committees that—
(A) provision of such assistance to the country in such fiscal year is vital to the national interests of the United States; or
(B) subsequent to the designation being made under paragraph (2)(A), the country has made substantial efforts—
(i) to adhere to its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements; and
(ii) to take the counternarcotics measures set forth in section 2291h(a)(1) of this title.
(4) International counternarcotics agreement defined
In this section, the term “international counternarcotics agreement” means—
(A) the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances; or
(B) any bilateral or multilateral agreement in force between the United States and another country or countries that addresses issues relating to the control of illicit drugs, such as—
(i) the production, distribution, and interdiction of illicit drugs;
(ii) demand reduction;
(iii) the activities of criminal organizations;
(iv) international legal cooperation among courts, prosecutors, and law enforcement agencies (including the exchange of information and evidence);
(v) the extradition of nationals and individuals involved in drug-related criminal activity;
(vi) the temporary transfer for prosecution of nationals and individuals involved in drug-related criminal activity;
(vii) border security;
(viii) money laundering;
(ix) illicit firearms trafficking;
(x) corruption;
(xi) control of precursor chemicals;
(xii) asset forfeiture; and
(xiii) related training and technical assistance,

and includes, where appropriate, timetables and objective and measurable standards to assess the progress made by participating countries with respect to such issues.
(5) Application
(A) Section 2291j(a) through (h) of this title shall not apply during any fiscal year with respect to any country identified in the report required by paragraph (1) of this section.
(B) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) through (5)(A) of this section, the President may apply the procedures set forth in section 2291j(a) through (h) of this title during any fiscal year with respect to any country determined to be a major drug transit country or major illicit drug producing country as defined in section 2291(e) of this title.
(C) Nothing in this section shall affect the requirements of section 2291j of this title with respect to countries identified pursuant to section clause (i) or (ii) of 2291h(a)(8)(A) of this title.
(6) Statutory construction
Nothing in this section supersedes or modifies the requirement in section 2291h(a) of this title (with respect to the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report) for the transmittal of a report not later than March 1, each fiscal year under that section.
(7) Transition rule
For funds obligated or expended under this section in fiscal year 2003, the date for submission of the report required by paragraph (1) of this section shall be at least 15 days before funds are obligated or expended.
(8) Effective date
This section shall take effect September 30, 2002, and shall remain in effect thereafter unless Congress enacts subsequent legislation repealing such section.
(Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §706, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1424; Pub. L. 109–177, title VII, §722(c), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 269.)

SUBCHAPTER II—MILITARY ASSISTANCE AND SALES

Part I—Declaration of Policy

22 USC § 2301. Congressional statement of policy

The Congress of the United States reaffirms the policy of the United States to achieve international peace and security through the United Nations so that armed force shall not be used except for individual or collective self-defense. The Congress finds that the efforts of the United States and other friendly countries to promote peace and security continue to require measures of support based upon the principle of effective self-help and mutual aid. It is the purpose of subchapter II of this chapter to authorize measures in the common defense against internal and external aggression, including the furnishing of military assistance, upon request, to friendly countries and international organizations. In furnishing such military assistance, it remains the policy of the United States to continue to exert maximum efforts to achieve universal control of weapons of mass destruction and universal regulation and reduction of armaments, including armed forces, under adequate safeguards to protect complying countries against violation and evasion.
The Congress recognizes that the peace of the world and the security of the United States are endangered so long as hostile countries continue by threat of military action, by the use of economic pressure, and by internal subversion, or other means to attempt to bring under their domination peoples now free and independent and continue to deny the rights of freedom and self-government to peoples and countries once free but now subject to such domination.
It is the sense of the Congress that an important contribution toward peace would be made by the establishment under the Organization of American States of an international military force.
In enacting this legislation, it is therefore the intention of the Congress to promote the peace of the world and the foreign policy, security, and general welfare of the United States by fostering an improved climate of political independence and individual liberty, improving the ability of friendly countries and international organizations to deter or, if necessary, defeat aggression, facilitating arrangements for individual and collective security, assisting friendly countries to maintain internal security, and creating an environment of security and stability in the developing friendly countries essential to their more rapid social, economic, and political progress. The Congress urges that all other countries able to contribute join in a common undertaking to meet the goals stated in subchapter II of this chapter.
It is the sense of the Congress that in the administration of subchapter II of this chapter priority shall be given to the needs of those countries in danger of becoming victims of aggression or in which the internal security is threatened by internal subversion inspired or supported by hostile countries.
Finally, the Congress reaffirms its full support of the progress of the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization toward increased cooperation in political, military, and economic affairs. In particular, the Congress welcomes the steps which have been taken to promote multilateral programs of coordinated procurement, research, development, and production of defense articles and urges that such programs be expanded to the fullest extent possible to further the defense of the North Atlantic Area.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §501, formerly §502, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 434, renumbered §501 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(a), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 103–199, title VII, §705(1), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2328.)

22 USC § 2302. Utilization of defense articles and defense services

Defense articles and defense services to any country shall be furnished solely for internal security (including for antiterrorism and nonproliferation purposes), for legitimate self-defense, to permit the recipient country to participate in regional or collective arrangements or measures consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, or otherwise to permit the recipient country to participate in collective measures requested by the United Nations for the purpose of maintaining or restoring international peace and security, or for the purpose of assisting foreign military forces in less developed friendly countries (or the voluntary efforts of personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States in such countries) to construct public works and to engage in other activities helpful to the economic and social development of such friendly countries. It is the sense of the Congress that such foreign military forces should not be maintained or established solely for civic action activities and that such civic action activities not significantly detract from the capability of the military forces to perform their military missions and be coordinated with and form part of the total economic and social development effort.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §502, formerly §505(a), Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(b), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(c), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(d), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 106–280, title VII, §701, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 861.)

22 USC § 2304. Human rights and security assistance

(a) Observance of human rights as principal goal of foreign policy; implementation requirements
(1) The United States shall, in accordance with its international obligations as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations and in keeping with the constitutional heritage and traditions of the United States, promote and encourage increased respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the world without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. Accordingly, a principal goal of the foreign policy of the United States shall be to promote the increased observance of internationally recognized human rights by all countries.
(2) Except under circumstances specified in this section, no security assistance may be provided to any country the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights. Security assistance may not be provided to the police, domestic intelligence, or similar law enforcement forces of a country, and licenses may not be issued under the Export Administration Act of 1979 [50 U.S.C. App. 2401 et seq.] for the export of crime control and detection instruments and equipment to a country, the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights unless the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the chairman of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate (when licenses are to be issued pursuant to the Export Administration Act of 1979) that extraordinary circumstances exist warranting provision of such assistance and issuance of such licenses. Assistance may not be provided under part V of this subchapter to a country the government of which engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights unless the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that extraordinary circumstances exist warranting provision of such assistance.
(3) In furtherance of paragraphs (1) and (2), the President is directed to formulate and conduct international security assistance programs of the United States in a manner which will promote and advance human rights and avoid identification of the United States, through such programs, with governments which deny to their people internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, in violation of international law or in contravention of the policy of the United States as expressed in this section or otherwise.
(4) In determining whether the government of a country engages in a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights, the President shall give particular consideration to whether the government—
(A) has engaged in or tolerated particularly severe violations of religious freedom, as defined in section 6402 of this title; or
(B) has failed to undertake serious and sustained efforts to combat particularly severe violations of religious freedom when such efforts could have been reasonably undertaken.
(b) Report by Secretary of State on practices of proposed recipient countries; considerations
The Secretary of State shall transmit to the Congress, as part of the presentation materials for security assistance programs proposed for each fiscal year, a full and complete report, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor and with the assistance of the Ambassador at Large for International Religious Freedom, with respect to practices regarding the observance of and respect for internationally recognized human rights in each country proposed as a recipient of security assistance. Wherever applicable, such report shall include consolidated information regarding the commission of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and evidence of acts that may constitute genocide (as defined in article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and modified by the United States instrument of ratification to that convention and section 2(a) of the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987). Wherever applicable, such report shall include information on practices regarding coercion in population control, including coerced abortion and involuntary sterilization. Such report shall also include, wherever applicable, information on violations of religious freedom, including particularly severe violations of religious freedom (as defined in section 6402 of this title). Wherever applicable, a description of the nature and extent of acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Semitic incitement that occur, including the descriptions of such acts required under section 2151n(d)(8) of this title. Such report shall also include, for each country with respect to which the report indicates that extrajudicial killings, torture, or other serious violations of human rights have occurred in the country, the extent to which the United States has taken or will take action to encourage an end to such practices in the country. Each report under this section shall list the votes of each member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on all country-specific and thematic resolutions voted on at the Commission's annual session during the period covered during the preceding year. Each report under this section shall also include (i) wherever applicable, a description of the nature and extent of the compulsory recruitment and conscription of individuals under the age of 18 by armed forces of the government of the country, government-supported paramilitaries, or other armed groups, the participation of such individuals in such groups, and the nature and extent that such individuals take a direct part in hostilities, (ii) what steps, if any, taken by the government of the country to eliminate such practices, and (iii) such other information related to the use by such government of individuals under the age of 18 as soldiers, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary of State. Each report under this section shall describe the extent to which each country has extended protection to refugees, including the provision of first asylum and resettlement. In determining whether a government falls within the provisions of subsection (a)(3) of this section and in the preparation of any report or statement required under this section, consideration shall be given to—
(1) the relevant findings of appropriate international organizations, including nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross; and
(2) the extent of cooperation by such government in permitting an unimpeded investigation by any such organization of alleged violations of internationally recognized human rights.
(c) Congressional request for information; information required; 30-day period; failure to supply information; termination or restriction of assistance
(1) Upon the request of the Senate or the House of Representatives by resolution of either such House, or upon the request of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Secretary of State shall, within thirty days after receipt of such request, transmit to both such committees a statement, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, with respect to the country designated in such request, setting forth—
(A) all the available information about observance of and respect for human rights and fundamental freedom in that country, and a detailed description of practices by the recipient government with respect thereto;
(B) the steps the United States has taken to—
(i) promote respect for and observance of human rights in that country and discourage any practices which are inimical to internationally recognized human rights, and
(ii) publicly or privately call attention to, and disassociate the United States and any security assistance provided for such country from, such practices;

(C) whether, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, notwithstanding any such practices—
(i) extraordinary circumstances exist which necessitate a continuation of security assistance for such country, and, if so, a description of such circumstances and the extent to which such assistance should be continued (subject to such conditions as Congress may impose under this section), and
(ii) on all the facts it is in the national interest of the United States to provide such assistance; and

(D) such other information as such committee or such House may request.

(2)(A) A resolution of request under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.
(B) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this subsection, a resolution of request of the Senate under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) In the event a statement with respect to a country is requested pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection but is not transmitted in accordance therewith within thirty days after receipt of such request, no security assistance shall be delivered to such country except as may thereafter be specifically authorized by law from such country unless and until such statement is transmitted.
(4)(A) In the event a statement with respect to a country is transmitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Congress may at any time thereafter adopt a joint resolution terminating, restricting, or continuing security assistance for such country. In the event such a joint resolution is adopted, such assistance shall be so terminated, so restricted, or so continued, as the case may be.
(B) Any such resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.
(C) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this paragraph, a statement transmitted under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(d) Definitions
For the purposes of this section—
(1) the term “gross violations of internationally recognized human rights” includes torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, prolonged detention without charges and trial, causing the disappearance of persons by the abduction and clandestine detention of those persons, and other flagrant denial of the right to life, liberty, or the security of person; and
(2) the term “security assistance” means—
(A) assistance under part II (military assistance) or part IV (economic support fund) or part V (military education and training) or part VI (peacekeeping operations) or part VIII (antiterrorism assistance) of this subchapter.
(B) sales of defense articles or services, extensions of credits (including participations in credits, and guaranties of loans under the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.]); or
(C) any license in effect with respect to the export of defense articles or defense services to or for the armed forces, police, intelligence, or other internal security forces of a foreign country under section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2778].
(e) Removal of prohibition on assistance
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, funds authorized to be appropriated under subchapter I of this chapter may be made available for the furnishing of assistance to any country with respect to which the President finds that such a significant improvement in its human rights record has occurred as to warrant lifting the prohibition on furnishing such assistance in the national interest of the United States.
(f) Allocations concerned with performance record of recipient countries without contravention of other provisions
In allocating the funds authorized to be appropriated by this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], the President shall take into account significant improvements in the human rights records of recipient countries, except that such allocations may not contravene any other provision of law.
(g) Report to Congress on use of certain authorities relating to human rights conditions
Whenever the provisions of subsection (e) or (f) of this section are applied, the President shall report to the Congress before making any funds available pursuant to those subsections. The report shall specify the country involved, the amount and kinds of assistance to be provided, and the justification for providing the assistance, including a description of the significant improvements which have occurred in the country's human rights record.
(h) Report on practices of recipient countries relating to trafficking in persons
(1) The report required by subsection (b) of this section shall include the following:
(A) A description of the nature and extent of severe forms of trafficking in persons, as defined in section 7102 of this title, in each foreign country.
(B) With respect to each country that is a country of origin, transit, or destination for victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons, an assessment of the efforts by the government of that country to combat such trafficking. The assessment shall address the following:
(i) Whether government authorities in that country participate in, facilitate, or condone such trafficking.
(ii) Which government authorities in that country are involved in activities to combat such trafficking.
(iii) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit government officials from participating in, facilitating, or condoning such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of such officials.
(iv) What steps the government of that country has taken to prohibit other individuals from participating in such trafficking, including the investigation, prosecution, and conviction of individuals involved in severe forms of trafficking in persons, the criminal and civil penalties for such trafficking, and the efficacy of those penalties in eliminating or reducing such trafficking.
(v) What steps the government of that country has taken to assist victims of such trafficking, including efforts to prevent victims from being further victimized by traffickers, government officials, or others, grants of relief from deportation, and provision of humanitarian relief, including provision of mental and physical health care and shelter.
(vi) Whether the government of that country is cooperating with governments of other countries to extradite traffickers when requested, or, to the extent that such cooperation would be inconsistent with the laws of such country or with extradition treaties to which such country is a party, whether the government of that country is taking all appropriate measures to modify or replace such laws and treaties so as to permit such cooperation.
(vii) Whether the government of that country is assisting in international investigations of transnational trafficking networks and in other cooperative efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons.
(viii) Whether the government of that country refrains from prosecuting victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons due to such victims having been trafficked, and refrains from other discriminatory treatment of such victims.
(ix) Whether the government of that country recognizes the rights of victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons and ensures their access to justice.

(C) Such other information relating to trafficking in persons as the Secretary of State considers appropriate.

(2) In compiling data and making assessments for the purposes of paragraph (1), United States diplomatic mission personnel shall consult with human rights organizations and other appropriate nongovernmental organizations.
(i) Report on status of freedom of the press in recipient countries
The report required by subsection (b) shall include, wherever applicable—
(1) a description of the status of freedom of the press, including initiatives in favor of freedom of the press and efforts to improve or preserve, as appropriate, the independence of the media, together with an assessment of progress made as a result of those efforts;
(2) an identification of countries in which there were violations of freedom of the press, including direct physical attacks, imprisonment, indirect sources of pressure, and censorship by governments, military, intelligence, or police forces, criminal groups, or armed extremist or rebel groups; and
(3) in countries where there are particularly severe violations of freedom of the press—
(A) whether government authorities of each such country participate in, facilitate, or condone such violations of the freedom of the press; and
(B) what steps the government of each such country has taken to preserve the safety and independence of the media, and to ensure the prosecution of those individuals who attack or murder journalists.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §502B, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §46, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1815; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title III, §301(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 748; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(3), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 95–384, §§6(a)–(d)(1), (e), 10(b)(1), 12(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 731, 732, 735, 737; Pub. L. 96–53, title V, §511, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 380; Pub. L. 96–92, §4, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title VII, §§701(b), 704, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3156, 3157; Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §124, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 99–83, title XII, §1201, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 276; Pub. L. 100–204, title I, §127(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1343; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588; Pub. L. 104–319, title II, §201(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3866; Pub. L. 105–292, title I, §102(d)(2), title IV, §421(b), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2795, 2810; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. A, title II, §252, title VIII, §806(b)], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–432, 1501A–471; Pub. L. 106–386, div. A, §104(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1472; Pub. L. 107–228, div. A, title VI, §§665(b), 683(b), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1407, 1411; Pub. L. 108–332, §6(a)(2), Oct. 16, 2004, 118 Stat. 1285; Pub. L. 111–166, §2(2), May 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 1187.)

22 USC § 2305. National Security Assistance Strategy

(a) Multiyear plan
Not later than 180 days after October 6, 2000, and annually thereafter at the time of submission of the congressional presentation materials of the foreign operations appropriations budget request, the Secretary of State should submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a plan setting forth a National Security Assistance Strategy for the United States.
(b) Elements of the Strategy
The National Security Assistance Strategy should—
(1) set forth a multi-year plan for security assistance programs;
(2) be consistent with the National Security Strategy of the United States;
(3) be coordinated with the Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;
(4) be prepared, in consultation with other agencies, as appropriate;
(5) identify overarching security assistance objectives, including identification of the role that specific security assistance programs will play in achieving such objectives;
(6) identify a primary security assistance objective, as well as specific secondary objectives, for individual countries;
(7) identify, on a country-by-country basis, how specific resources will be allocated to accomplish both primary and secondary objectives;
(8) discuss how specific types of assistance, such as foreign military financing and international military education and training, will be combined at the country level to achieve United States objectives; and
(9) detail, with respect to each of the paragraphs (1) through (8), how specific types of assistance provided pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] and the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.] are coordinated with United States assistance programs managed by the Department of Defense and other agencies.
(c) Covered assistance
The National Security Assistance Strategy should cover assistance provided under—
(1) section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763);
(2) chapter 5 of part II of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2347 et seq.); and
(3) section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2321j].
(Pub. L. 106–280, title V, §501, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 854.)

Part II—Military Assistance

22 USC § 2311. General authority

(a) Defense articles and services; noncombatant personnel; transfer of funds
The President is authorized to furnish military assistance, on such terms and conditions as he may determine, to any friendly country or international organization, the assisting of which the President finds will strengthen the security of the United States and promote world peace and which is otherwise eligible to receive such assistance, by—
(1) acquiring for any source and providing (by loan or grant) any defense article or defense service;
(2) assigning or detailing members of the Armed Forces of the United States and other personnel of the Department of Defense to perform duties of a noncombatant nature; or
(3) transferring such of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available under this part as the President may determine for assistance to a recipient country, to the account in which funds for the procurement of defense articles and defense services under section 21 and section 22 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2761 and 2762] have been deposited for such recipient, to be merged with such deposited funds, and to be used solely to meet obligations of the recipient for payment for sales under that Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].

Sales which are wholly paid from funds transferred under paragraph (3) or from funds made available on a non-repayable basis under section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2763] shall be priced to exclude the costs of salaries of members of the Armed Forces of the United States (other than the Coast Guard).
(b) Terms and conditions
In addition to such other terms and conditions as the President may determine pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, defense articles may be loaned thereunder only if—
(1) there is a bona fide reason, other than the shortage of funds, for providing such articles on a loan basis rather than on a grant basis;
(2) there is a reasonable expectation that such articles will be returned to the agency making the loan at the end of the loan period, unless the loan is then renewed;
(3) the loan period is of fixed duration not exceeding five years, during which such article may be recalled for any reason by the United States;
(4) the agency making the loan is reimbursed for the loan based on the amount charged to the appropriation for military assistance under subsection (c) of this section; and
(5) the loan agreement provides that (A) if the defense article is damaged while on loan, the country or international organization to which it was loaned will reimburse the United States for the cost of restoring or replacing the defense article, and (B) if the defense article is lost or destroyed while on loan, the country or international organization to which it was loaned will pay to the United States an amount equal to the replacement cost (less any depreciation in the value) of the defense article.
(c) Appropriation charges; exceptions
(1) In the case of any loan of a defense article or defense service made under this section, there shall be a charge to the appropriation for military assistance for any fiscal year while the article or service is on loan in an amount based on—
(A) the out-of-pocket expenses authorized to be incurred in connection with such loan during such fiscal year; and
(B) the depreciation which occurs during such year while such article is on loan.

(2) The provisions of this subsection shall not apply—
(A) to any particular defense article or defense service which the United States Government agreed, prior to December 17, 1973, to lend; and
(B) to any defense article or defense service, or portion thereof, acquired with funds appropriated for military assistance under this chapter.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §503, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 435; Pub. L. 88–633, §201(a), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(a), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(b), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(1), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3138; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §§109(c), 110(c), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §123(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §586(a), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–50.)

22 USC § 2312. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization and availability of amounts
(1) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part $805,100,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $805,100,000 for fiscal year 1987.
(2) Amounts appropriated under this subsection are authorized to remain available until expended.
(b) Programing and budgeting procedures
In order to make sure that a dollar spent on military assistance to foreign countries is as necessary as a dollar spent for the United States military establishment, the President shall establish procedures for programing and budgeting so that programs of military assistance come into direct competition for financial support with other activities and programs of the Department of Defense.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §504, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(a), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(b), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(b), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(a), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(c), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(a), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. II, §201, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(a), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(2), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 93–559, §10, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1798; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §101, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 95–23, Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 54; Pub. L. 95–92, §5(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 614; Pub. L. 95–384, §7(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §5(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(b), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §110(a), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §103, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 195.)

22 USC § 2314. Furnishing of defense articles or related training or other defense service on grant basis

(a) Conditions of eligibility
In addition to such other provisions as the President may require, no defense articles or related training or other defense service shall be furnished to any country on a grant basis unless it shall have agreed that—
(1) it will not, without the consent of the President—
(A) permit any use of such articles or related training or other defense service by anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of that country,
(B) transfer, or permit any officer, employee, or agent of that country to transfer such articles or related training or other defense service by gift, sale, or otherwise, or
(C) use or permit the use of such articles or related training or other defense service for purposes other than those for which furnished;

(2) it will maintain the security of such articles or related training or other defense service, and will provide substantially the same degree of security protection afforded to such articles or related training or other defense service by the United States Government;
(3) it will, as the President may require, permit continuous observation and review by, and furnish necessary information to, representatives of the United States Government with regard to the use of such articles or related training or other defense service; and
(4) unless the President consents to other disposition, it will return to the United States Government for such use or disposition as the President considers in the best interests of the United States, such articles or related training or other defense service which are no longer needed for the purposes for which furnished.
(b) Limitation on amount; exceptions
No defense articles shall be furnished on a grant basis to any country at a cost in excess of $3,000,000 in any fiscal year unless the President determines—
(1) that such country conforms to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations;
(2) that such defense articles will be utilized by such country for the maintenance of its own defensive strength, or the defensive strength of the free world;
(3) that such country is taking all reasonable measures, consistent with its political and economic stability, which may be needed to develop its defense capacities; and
(4) that the increased ability of such country to defend itself is important to the security of the United States.
(c) Reduction and termination of grants to countries able to maintain adequate military forces without undue economic strain
The President shall regularly reduce and, with such deliberate speed as orderly procedure and other relevant considerations, including prior commitments, will permit, shall terminate all further grants of military equipment and supplies to any country having sufficient wealth to enable it, in the judgment of the President, to maintain and equip its own military forces at adequate strength, without undue burden to its economy.
(d) Termination of assistance; report of violation by President; conditions for reinstatement
(1) Assistance and deliveries of assistance under this part to any country shall be terminated as hereinafter provided, if such country uses defense articles or defense services furnished under this chapter, the Mutual Security Act of 1954, or any predecessor Foreign Assistance Act, in substantial violation (either in terms of quantities or in terms of the gravity of the consequences regardless of the quantities involved) of any agreement entered into pursuant to any such Act (A) by using such articles or services for a purpose not authorized under section 2302 of this title or, if such agreement provides that such articles or services may only be used for purposes more limited than those authorized under section 2302 of this title, for a purpose not authorized under such agreement; (B) by transferring such articles or services to, or permitting any use of such articles or services by, anyone not an officer, employee, or agent of the recipient country without the consent of the President; or (C) by failing to maintain the security of such articles or services.
(2)(A) Assistance and deliveries of assistance shall be terminated pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection if the President so determines and so states in writing to the Congress, or if the Congress so finds by joint resolution.
(B) The President shall report to the Congress promptly upon the receipt of information that a violation described in paragraph (1) of this subsection may have occurred.
(3) Assistance to a country shall remain terminated in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection until such time as—
(A) the President determines that the violation has ceased; and
(B) the country concerned has given assurances satisfactory to the President that such violation will not recur.

(4) The authority contained in section 2364(a) of this title may not be used to waive the provisions of this section with respect to further assistance under this part.
(e) Consent by President to transfer
In considering a request for approval of any transfer of any weapon, weapons system, munitions, aircraft, military boat, military vessel, or other implement of war to another country, the President shall not give his consent under subsection (a)(1) or (a)(4) of this section to the transfer unless the United States itself would transfer the defense article under consideration to that country. In addition, the President shall not give his consent under subsection (a)(1) or (a)(4) of this section to the transfer of any significant defense articles on the United States Munitions List unless the foreign country requesting consent to transfer agrees to demilitarize such defense articles prior to transfer, or the proposed recipient foreign country provides a commitment in writing to the United States Government that it will not transfer such defense articles, if not demilitarized, to any other foreign country or person without first obtaining the consent of the President.
(f) Disposition of defense articles furnished on a grant basis; net proceeds to be paid over to the United States
Effective July 1, 1974, no defense article shall be furnished to any country on a grant basis unless such country shall have agreed that the net proceeds of sale received by such country in disposing of any weapon, weapons system, munition, aircraft, military boat, military vessel, or other implement of war received under this part will be paid to the United States Government and shall be available to pay all official costs of the United States Government payable in the currency of that country, including all costs relating to the financing of international educational and cultural exchange activities in which that country participates under the programs authorized by the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2451 et seq.]. In the case of items which were delivered prior to 1985, the President may waive the requirement that such net proceeds be paid to the United States Government if he determines that to do so is in the national interest of the United States.
(g) Discrimination on basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex prohibited
(1) It is the policy of the United States that no assistance under this part should be furnished to any foreign country, the laws, regulations, official policies, or governmental practices of which prevent any United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30) of title 26) from participating in the furnishing of defense articles or defense services under this part on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex.
(2)(A) No agency performing functions under this part shall, in employing or assigning personnel to participate in the performance of any such function, whether in the United States or abroad, take into account the exclusionary policies or practices of any foreign government where such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex.
(B) Each contract entered into by any such agency for the performance of any function under this part shall contain a provision to the effect that no person, partnership, corporation, or other entity performing functions pursuant to such contract, shall, in employing or assigning personnel to participate in the performance of any such function, whether in the United States or abroad, take into account the exclusionary policies or practices of any foreign government where such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex.
(3) The President shall promptly transmit reports to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate concerning any transaction in which any United States person (as defined in section 7701(a)(30) of title 26) is prevented by a foreign government on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, from participating in the furnishing of assistance under this part, or education and training under part V of this subchapter, to any foreign country. Such reports shall include (A) a description of the facts and circumstances of any such discrimination, (B) the response thereto on the part of the United States or any agency or employee thereof, and (C) the result of such response, if any.
(4)(A) Upon the request of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate or the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the President shall, within 60 days after receipt of such request, transmit to both such committees a statement, prepared with the assistance of the Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, with respect to the country designated in such request, setting forth—
(i) all the available information about the exclusionary policies or practices of the government of such country when such policies or practices are based upon race, religion, national origin, or sex and prevent any such person from participating in a transaction involving the furnishing of any assistance under this part or any education and training under part V of this subchapter;
(ii) the response of the United States thereto and the results of such response;
(iii) whether, in the opinion of the President, notwithstanding any such policies or practices—
(I) extraordinary circumstances exist which necessitate a continuation of such assistance or education and training transaction, and, if so, a description of such circumstances and the extent to which such assistance or education and training transaction should be continued (subject to such conditions as Congress may impose under this section), and
(II) on all the facts it is in the national interest of the United States to continue such assistance or education and training transaction; and

(iv) such other information as such committee may request.

(B) In the event a statement with respect to an assistance or training transaction is requested pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph but is not transmitted in accordance therewith within 60 days after receipt of such request, such assistance or training transaction shall be suspended unless and until such statement is transmitted.
(C)(i) In the event a statement with respect to an assistance or training transaction is transmitted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Congress may at any time thereafter adopt a joint resolution terminating or restricting such assistance or training transaction.
(ii) Any such resolution shall be considered in the Senate in accordance with the provisions of section 601(b) of the International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976.
(iii) The term “certification”, as used in section 601 of such Act, means, for the purposes of this paragraph, a statement transmitted under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §505, formerly §506, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(a), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(b), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §505, Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(e), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456 and amended Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(b), (c), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(3), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §§203(b), 204(b)(2), title III, §§302(a), 304(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 735, 736, 751, 754; Pub. L. 95–105, title I, §109(a)(4), Aug. 17, 1977, 91 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §123(b), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 101–513, title III, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1998; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 103–437, §9(a)(6), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4588.)

22 USC § 2318. Special authority

(a) Unforeseen emergency; national interest; determinations and reports to Congress; limitation of defense articles, defense services, and military education and training furnished
(1) If the President determines and reports to the Congress in accordance with section 2411 of this title that—
(A) an unforeseen emergency exists which requires immediate military assistance to a foreign country or international organization; and
(B) the emergency requirement cannot be met under the authority of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or any other law except this section;

he may direct, for the purposes of subchapter II of this chapter, the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, and military education and training, of an aggregate value of not to exceed $100,000,000 in any fiscal year.
(2)(A) If the President determines and reports to the Congress in accordance with section 2411 of this title that it is in the national interest of the United States to draw down articles and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the United States Government and military education and training from the Department of Defense, the President may direct the drawdown of such articles, services, and military education and training—
(i) for the purposes and under the authorities of—
(I) part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to international narcotics control assistance);
(II) part IX of subchapter I of this chapter (relating to international disaster assistance);
(III) part VIII of subchapter II of this chapter (relating to antiterrorism assistance);
(IV) part IX of subchapter II of this chapter (relating to nonproliferation assistance); or
(V) the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 [22 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.]; or

(ii) for the purpose of providing such articles, services, and military education and training to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos as the President determines are necessary—
(I) to support cooperative efforts to locate and repatriate members of the United States Armed Forces and civilians employed directly or indirectly by the United States Government who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War; and
(II) to ensure the safety of United States Government personnel engaged in such cooperative efforts and to support Department of Defense-sponsored humanitarian projects associated with such efforts.

(B) An aggregate value of not to exceed $200,000,000 in any fiscal year of such articles, services, and military education and training may be provided pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph—
(i) not more than $75,000,000 of which may be provided from the drawdown from the inventory and resources of the Department of Defense;
(ii) not more than $75,000,000 of which may be provided pursuant to clause (i)(I) of such subparagraph; and
(iii) not more than $15,000,000 of which may be provided to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos pursuant to clause (ii) of such subparagraph.
(b) Notification and information to Congress of assistance furnished
(1) The authority contained in this section shall be effective for any such emergency only upon prior notification to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, and the Committee on Appropriations of each House of Congress. In the case of drawdowns authorized by subclauses (I) and (III) of subsection (a)(2)(A)(i) of this section, notifications shall be provided to those committees at least 15 days in advance of the drawdowns in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under section 2394–1 of this title.
(2) The President shall keep the Congress fully and currently informed of all defense articles, defense services, and military education and training provided under this section, including providing the Congress with a report detailing all defense articles, defense services, and military education and training delivered to the recipient country or international organization upon delivery of such articles or upon completion of such services or education and training. Such report shall also include whether any savings were realized by utilizing commercial transport services rather than acquiring those services from United States Government transport assets.
(c) Commercial transportation and related services
For the purposes of any provision of law that authorizes the drawdown of defense or other articles or commodities, or defense or other services from an agency of the United States Government, such drawdown may include the supply of commercial transportation and related services that are acquired by contract for the purposes of the drawdown in question if the cost to acquire such commercial transportation and related services is less than the cost to the United States Government of providing such services from existing agency assets.
(d) Authorization of appropriations for reimbursement of applicable funds
There are authorized to be appropriated to the President such sums as may be necessary to reimburse the applicable appropriation, fund, or account for defense articles, defense services, and military education and training provided under this section.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §506, formerly §510, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 87–565, pt. II, §201(d), Aug. 1, 1962, 76 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. II, §202(c), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 88–633, pt. II, §201(e), Oct. 7, 1964, 78 Stat. 1012; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(g), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 658; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(d), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §506 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(j), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 457; Pub. L. 90–554, pt. II, §201(b), Oct. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 962; Pub. L. 91–175, pt. II, §202, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(d), pt. III, §304(a)(2), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25, 28; Pub. L. 93–189, §12(b)(4), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 721; Pub. L. 93–559, §11, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1798; Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §102, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 96–92, §5(b), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 702; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §112(c), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §110(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1526; Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §551(b), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1236; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §103(a), (b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1423; Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §576, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §121, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 850.)

22 USC § 2321b. Excess defense article

(a) to (c) Repealed. Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §210(c)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740
(d) Reports to Congress
The President shall promptly and fully inform the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate of each decision to furnish on a grant basis to any country excess defense articles which are major weapons systems to the extent such major weapons system was not included in the presentation material previously submitted to the Congress. The annual presentation materials for security assistance programs shall include a table listing by country the total value of all deliveries of excess defense articles, disclosing both the aggregate original acquisition cost and the aggregate value at the time of delivery.
(Pub. L. 91–672, §8, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2054; Pub. L. 92–226, pt. IV, §402, Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 93–189, §26(1)–(3), Dec. 17, 1973, 87 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 93–559, §13, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; Pub. L. 94–329, title II, §210(c)(2), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 740; Pub. L. 95–384, §29(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 747.)

22 USC § 2321c. Definitions

For purposes of sections 2321b and 2314a of this title—
(1) “defense article” and “excess defense articles” have the same meanings as given them in subsections (d) and (g), respectively, of section 2403 of this title; and
(2) “foreign country” includes any department, agency, or independent establishment of the foreign country.
(Pub. L. 91–672, §11, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2055.)

22 USC § 2321d. Considerations in furnishing military assistance

Decisions to furnish military assistance made under subchapter II of this chapter shall take into account whether such assistance will—
(1) contribute to an arms race;
(2) increase the possibility of outbreak or escalation of conflict; or
(3) prejudice the development of bilateral or multilateral arms control arrangements.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §511, as added Pub. L. 92–226, pt. II, §201(f), Feb. 7, 1972, 86 Stat. 25; amended Pub. L. 94–141, title I, §150(c), Nov. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 760; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, subdiv. A, title XII, §1225(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–773.)

22 USC § 2321h. Stockpiling of defense articles for foreign countries

(a) Transfer of defense articles
No defense article in the inventory of the Department of Defense which is set aside, reserved, or in any way earmarked or intended for future use by any foreign country may be made available to or for use by any foreign country unless such transfer is authorized under this chapter or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] or any subsequent corresponding legislation, and the value of such transfer is charged against funds authorized under such legislation or against the limitations specified in such legislation, as appropriate, for the fiscal period in which such defense article is transferred. For purposes of this subsection, “value” means the acquisition cost plus crating, packing, handling, and transportation costs incurred in carrying out this section.
(b) Fiscal year limits on new stockpiles or additions to existing stockpiles located in foreign countries
(1) The value of defense articles to be set aside, earmarked, reserved, or intended for use as war reserve stocks for allied or other foreign countries (other than for purposes of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or in the implementation of agreements with Israel) in stockpiles located in foreign countries may not exceed in any fiscal year an amount that is specified in security assistance authorizing legislation for that fiscal year.
(2)(A) The value of such additions to stockpiles of defense articles in foreign countries shall not exceed $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2013 and 2014.
(B) Of the amount specified in subparagraph (A) for a fiscal year, not more than $200,000,000 may be made available for stockpiles in the State of Israel.
(c) Location of stockpiles of defense articles
(1) Limitation
Except as provided in paragraph (2), no stockpile of defense articles may be located outside the boundaries of a United States military base or a military base used primarily by the United States.
(2) Exceptions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to stockpiles of defense articles located in the Republic of Korea, Thailand, any country that is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, any country that is a major non-NATO ally, or any other country the President may designate. At least 15 days before designating a country pursuant to the last clause of the preceding sentence, the President shall notify the congressional committees specified in section 2394–1(a) of this title in accordance with the procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under that section.
(d) Transferred articles not to be considered excess articles in determining value
No defense article transferred from any stockpile which is made available to or for use by any foreign country may be considered an excess defense article for the purpose of determining the value thereof.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §514, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §15, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §103, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 730; Pub. L. 95–92, §6, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 95–384, §8, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §6(a), Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §113, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §111, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(1) [title V, §541(a)], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1884, 1903; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §124, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(e) [title III, §301], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–131, 1329–147; Pub. L. 100–461, title V, §555, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2268–36; Pub. L. 101–167, title V, §587(b), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1253; Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIII, §1303(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1669; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §573, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2042; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §569, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1681; Pub. L. 103–87, title V, §535, Sept. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §535, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1637; Pub. L. 104–107, title V, §531B, Feb. 12, 1996, 110 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 105–118, title V, §575, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat. 2433; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(d) [title V, §571], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–150, 2681–198; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §§1000(a)(2) [title V, §584], 1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §1231], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1536, 1501A–117, 1501A–499; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §111, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 849; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1261, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1434; Pub. L. 108–287, title X, §12002, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 109–472, §13(a)(2), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3559; Pub. L. 111–266, title III, §302(b), Oct. 8, 2010, 124 Stat. 2804; Pub. L. 112–150, §5(a)(2), July 27, 2012, 126 Stat. 1148.)

22 USC § 2321i. Overseas management of assistance and sales programs

(a) Assignment of military personnel for performance of enumerated functions
In order to carry out his responsibilities for the management of international security assistance programs conducted under this part, part V of this subchapter, and the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], the President may assign members of the Armed Forces of the United States to a foreign country to perform one or more of the following functions:
(1) equipment and services case management;
(2) training management;
(3) program monitoring;
(4) evaluation and planning of the host government's military capabilities and requirements;
(5) administrative support;
(6) promoting rationalization, standardization, interoperability, and other defense cooperation measures; and
(7) liaison functions exclusive of advisory and training assistance.
(b) Furnishing of advisory and training assistance
Advisory and training assistance conducted by military personnel assigned under this section shall be kept to an absolute minimum. It is the sense of the Congress that advising and training assistance in countries to which military personnel are assigned under this section shall be provided primarily by other personnel who are not assigned under this section and who are detailed for limited periods to perform specific tasks.
(c) Number of personnel assigned; waiver; procedures applicable
(1) The number of members of the Armed Forces assigned to a foreign country under this section may not exceed six unless specifically authorized by the Congress. The president may waive this limitation if he determines and reports to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, 30 days prior to the introduction of the additional military personnel, that United States national interests require that more than six members of the Armed Forces be assigned under this section to carry out international security assistance programs in a country not specified in this paragraph. Pakistan, Tunisia, El Salvador, Honduras, Colombia, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey are authorized to have military personnel strengths larger than six under this section to carry out international security assistance programs.
(2) The total number of members of the Armed Forces assigned under this section to a foreign country in a fiscal year may not exceed the number justified to the Congress for that country in the congressional presentation materials for that fiscal year, unless the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives are notified 30 days in advance of the introduction of the additional military personnel.
(d) Costs
Effective October 1, 1989, the entire costs (excluding salaries of the United States military personnel other than the Coast Guard) of overseas management of international security assistance programs under this section shall be charged to or reimbursed from funds made available to carry out this part or the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.], other than any such costs which are either paid directly for such defense services under section 21(a) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2761(a)] or reimbursed from charges for services collected from foreign governments pursuant to section 21(e) [22 U.S.C. 2761(e)] and section 43(b) [22 U.S.C. 2792(b)] of that Act.
(e) Direction and supervision of assigned personnel
Members of the Armed Forces assigned to a foreign country under this section shall serve under the direction and supervision of the Chief of the United States Diplomatic Mission to that country.
(f) Presidential directive respecting purchase by foreign country of United States-made military equipment
The President shall continue to instruct United States diplomatic and military personnel in the United States missions abroad that they should not encourage, promote, or influence the purchase by any foreign country of United States-made military equipment, unless they are specifically instructed to do so by an appropriate official of the executive branch.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §515, as added Pub. L. 93–559, §16, Dec. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1799; amended Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §104, June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 731; Pub. L. 95–92, §7(a), Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 615; Pub. L. 95–384, §9, Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 96–92, §7, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §114, Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3139; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §112, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1527; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §125, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, §4305(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4273; Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9104(a), Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1152; Pub. L. 101–167, title III, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1213; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §556(c), Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1675; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §143, July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1434.)

22 USC § 2321j. Authority to transfer excess defense articles

(a) Authorization
The President is authorized to transfer excess defense articles under this section to countries for which receipt of such articles was justified pursuant to the annual congressional presentation documents for military assistance programs, or for programs under part VIII of subchapter I of this chapter, submitted under section 2394 of this title, or for which receipt of such articles was separately justified to the Congress, for the fiscal year in which the transfer is authorized.
(b) Limitations on transfers
(1) The President may transfer excess defense articles under this section only if—
(A) such articles are drawn from existing stocks of the Department of Defense;
(B) funds available to the Department of Defense for the procurement of defense equipment are not expended in connection with the transfer;
(C) the transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the military readiness of the United States;
(D) with respect to a proposed transfer of such articles on a grant basis, such a transfer is preferable to a transfer on a sales basis, after taking into account the potential proceeds from, and likelihood of, such sales, and the comparative foreign policy benefits that may accrue to the United States as the result of a transfer on either a grant or sales basis;
(E) the President determines that the transfer of such articles will not have an adverse impact on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, will not reduce the opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are transferred; and
(F) the transfer of such articles is consistent with the policy framework for the Eastern Mediterranean established under section 2373 of this title.

(2) Accordingly, for the four-year period beginning on October 1, 1996, and thereafter for the four-period beginning on October 1, 2000, the President shall ensure that excess defense articles offered to Greece and Turkey under this section will be made available consistent with the manner in which the President made available such excess defense articles during the four-year period that began on October 1, 1992, pursuant to section 573(e) of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990.
(c) Terms of transfers
(1) No cost to recipient country
Excess defense articles may be transferred under this section without cost to the recipient country.
(2) Priority
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the delivery of excess defense articles under this section to member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on the southern and southeastern flank of NATO, to major non-NATO allies on such southern and southeastern flank, and to the Philippines shall be given priority to the maximum extent feasible over the delivery of such excess defense articles to other countries.
(d) Waiver of requirement for reimbursement of Department of Defense expenses
Section 2392(d) of this title shall not apply with respect to transfers of excess defense articles (including transportation and related costs) under this section.
(e) Transportation and related costs
(1) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2), funds available to the Department of Defense may not be expended for crating, packing, handling, and transportation of excess defense articles transferred under the authority of this section.
(2) Exception
The President may provide for the transportation of excess defense articles without charge to a country for the costs of such transportation if—
(A) it is determined that it is in the national interest of the United States to do so;
(B) the recipient is a developing country receiving less than $10,000,000 of assistance under part V of this subchapter (relating to international military education and training) or section 23 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2763; relating to the Foreign Military Financing program) in the fiscal year in which the transportation is provided;
(C) the total weight of the transfer does not exceed 50,000 pounds; and
(D) such transportation is accomplished on a space available basis.
(f) Advance notification to Congress for transfer of certain excess defense articles
(1) In general
The President may not transfer excess defense articles that are significant military equipment (as defined in section 47(9) of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2794(9)]) or excess defense articles valued (in terms of original acquisition cost) at $7,000,000 or more, under this section or under the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) until 30 days after the date on which the President has provided notice of the proposed transfer to the congressional committees specified in section 2394–1(a) of this title in accordance with procedures applicable to reprogramming notifications under that section.
(2) Contents
Such notification shall include—
(A) a statement outlining the purposes for which the article is being provided to the country, including whether such article has been previously provided to such country;
(B) an assessment of the impact of the transfer on the military readiness of the United States;
(C) an assessment of the impact of the transfer on the national technology and industrial base and, particularly, the impact on opportunities of entities in the national technology and industrial base to sell new or used equipment to the countries to which such articles are to be transferred; and
(D) a statement describing the current value of such article and the value of such article at acquisition.
(g) Aggregate annual limitation
(1) In general
The aggregate value of excess defense articles transferred to countries under this section in any fiscal year may not exceed $425,000,000.
(2) Effective date
The limitation contained in paragraph (1) shall apply only with respect to fiscal years beginning after fiscal year 1996.
(h) Congressional presentation documents
Documents described in subsection (a) of this section justifying the transfer of excess defense articles shall include an explanation of the general purposes of providing excess defense articles as well as a table which provides an aggregate annual total of transfers of excess defense articles in the preceding year by country in terms of offers and actual deliveries and in terms of acquisition cost and current value. Such table shall indicate whether such excess defense articles were provided on a grant or sale basis.
(i) Excess Coast Guard property
For purposes of this section, the term “excess defense articles” shall be deemed to include excess property of the Coast Guard, and the term “Department of Defense” shall be deemed, with respect to such excess property, to include the Coast Guard.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §516, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title XI, §1101, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3960; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8143], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1321–43, 1329–89; Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title IX, §934, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §589, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1049(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1469; Pub. L. 102–391, title V, §574, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1683; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title XIII, §1313, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2548; Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1182(c)(2), title XIV, §1421, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1772, 1829; Pub. L. 103–236, title VII, §731(a), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title X, §1012(g)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §104(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1424; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, §§1211(b), 1213], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–497, 1501A–498; Pub. L. 106–280, title I, §122, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1234, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1433.)

22 USC § 2321k. Designation of major non-NATO allies

(a) Notice to Congress
The President shall notify the Congress in writing at least 30 days before—
(1) designating a country as a major non-NATO ally for purposes of this chapter and the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.); or
(2) terminating such a designation.
(b) Initial designations
Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and New Zealand shall be deemed to have been so designated by the President as of the effective date of this section, and the President is not required to notify the Congress of such designation of those countries.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §517, as added Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §147(a)(1), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1434.)

Part III—Foreign Military Sales

22 USC § 2344. Reimbursements

(a) Separate fund account; transfers to such account
Whenever funds made available for use under subchapter II of this chapter have been or are used to furnish military assistance on cash or credit terms, United States dollar repayments, including dollar proceeds derived from the sale of foreign currency repayments to any agency or program of the United States Government, receipts received from the disposition of evidences of indebtedness and charges (including fees and premiums) or interest collected shall be credited to a separate fund account, and shall be available until expended solely for the purpose of financing sales and guaranties, including the overhead costs thereof, and, notwithstanding any provision of law relating to receipts and credits accruing to the United States Government, repayments in foreign currency may be used to carry out subchapter II of this chapter. Such amounts of the appropriations made available under subchapter II of this chapter (including unliquidated balances of funds heretofore obligated for financing sales and guarantees) as may be determined by the President shall be transferred to, and merged with, the separate fund account.
(b) Termination of account; special account for discharge of Federal liabilities and obligations; general fund for excess moneys
(1) The special fund account established under subsection (a) of this section shall terminate as of the end of June 30, 1968, or on such earlier date as may be selected by the President.
(2) Upon the termination of such fund account pursuant to paragraph (1), all of the assets of such fund account (including loans and other payments receivable) shall be transferred to a special account in the Treasury, which special account shall be available solely for the purpose of discharging outstanding liabilities and obligations of the United States arising out of credit sales agreements entered into, and guaranties issued, under subchapter II of this chapter prior to June 30, 1968. Any moneys in such special account in excess of the aggregate United States dollar amount of such liabilities and obligations shall be transferred from time to time to the general fund of the Treasury.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §524, formerly §508, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 89–171, pt. II, §201(e), Sept. 6, 1965, 79 Stat. 657; Pub. L. 89–583, pt. II, §201(c), Sept. 19, 1966, 80 Stat. 803; renumbered §524 and amended Pub. L. 90–137, pt. II, §201(h), Nov. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 90–629, ch. 4, §45(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1327.)

Part V—International Military Education and Training

22 USC § 2347. General authority

(a) The President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions consistent with this chapter as the President may determine (but whenever feasible on a reimbursable basis), military education and training to military and related civilian personnel of foreign countries. Such civilian personnel shall include foreign governmental personnel of ministries other than ministries of defense, and may also include legislators and individuals who are not members of the government, if the military education and training would (i) contribute to responsible defense resource management, (ii) foster greater respect for and understanding of the principle of civilian control of the military, (iii) contribute to cooperation between military and law enforcement personnel with respect to counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, or (iv) improve military justice systems and procedures in accordance with internationally recognized human rights. Such training and education may be provided through—
(1) attendance at military educational and training facilities in the United States (other than Service academies) and abroad;
(2) attendance in special courses of instruction at schools and institutions of learning or research in the United States and abroad; and
(3) observation and orientation visits to military facilities and related activities in the United States and abroad.
(b) The President shall seek reimbursement for military education and training furnished under this part from countries using assistance under section 2763 of this title (relating to the Foreign Military Financing Program) to purchase such military education and training at a rate comparable to the rate charged to countries receiving grant assistance for military education and training under this part.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §541, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 732; amended Pub. L. 101–513, title III, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1997; Pub. L. 102–583, §10, Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4934; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427; Pub. L. 109–102, title V, §534(l)(3), Nov. 14, 2005, 119 Stat. 2211.)

22 USC § 2347a. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out the purposes of this part $56,221,000 for fiscal year 1986 and $56,221,000 for fiscal year 1987.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §542, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 732; amended Pub. L. 95–92, §10, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 619; Pub. L. 95–384, §11(a), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736; Pub. L. 96–92, §9, Oct. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 705; Pub. L. 96–533, title I, §115(a), Dec. 16, 1980, 94 Stat. 3140; Pub. L. 97–113, title I, §113, title VII, §734(a)(1), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1528, 1560; Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §104, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 195.)

22 USC § 2347b. Congressional declaration of purpose

Education and training activities conducted under this part shall be designed—
(1) to encourage effective and mutually beneficial relations and increased understanding between the United States and foreign countries in furtherance of the goals of international peace and security;
(2) to improve the ability of participating foreign countries to utilize their resources, including defense articles and defense services obtained by them from the United States, with maximum effectiveness, thereby contributing to greater self-reliance by such countries; and
(3) to increase the awareness of nationals of foreign countries participating in such activities of basic issues involving internationally recognized human rights.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §543, as added Pub. L. 94–329, title I, §106(a), June 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 733; amended Pub. L. 95–384, §11(b), Sept. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 736.)

22 USC § 2347c. Exchange training; reciprocity agreement

(a) Attendance of foreign military personnel at professional military education institutions
In carrying out this part, the President is authorized to provide for attendance of foreign military personnel at professional military education institutions in the United States (other than service academies) without charge, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title), if such attendance is pursuant to an agreement providing for the exchange of students on a one-for-one, reciprocal basis each fiscal year between those United States professional military education institutions and comparable institutions of foreign countries and international organizations.
(b) Attendance of foreign military and civilian defense personnel at flight training schools and programs
The President may provide for the attendance of foreign military and civilian defense personnel at flight training schools and programs (including test pilot schools) in the United States without charge, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title), if such attendance is pursuant to an agreement providing for the exchange of students on a one-for-one basis each fiscal year between those United States flight training schools and programs (including test pilot schools) and comparable flight training schools and programs of foreign countries.
(c) Post-undergraduate flying training and tactical leadership programs at training locations in Southwest Asia
(1) The President is authorized to enter into cooperative arrangements providing for the participation of foreign and United States military and civilian defense personnel in post-undergraduate flying training and tactical leadership programs at training locations in Southwest Asia without charge to participating foreign countries, and without charge to funds available to carry out this part (notwithstanding section 2392(d) of this title). Such training must satisfy common requirements with the United States for post-undergraduate flying and tactical leadership training.
(2) Cooperative arrangements under this subsection shall require an equitable contribution of support and services from each participating country. The President may waive the requirement for an equitable contribution of a participating foreign country if he determines that to do so is important to the national security interests of the United States.
(3) Costs incurred by the United States shall be charged to the current applicable appropriations accounts or funds of the participating United States Government agencies.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §544, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §126, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205; amended Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1213, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1429.)

22 USC § 2347d. Training in maritime skills

The President is encouraged to allocate a portion of the funds made available each fiscal year to carry out this part for use in providing education and training in maritime search and rescue, operation and maintenance of aids to navigation, port security, at-sea law enforcement, international maritime law, and general maritime skills.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §545, as added Pub. L. 99–83, title I, §127(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 205.)

22 USC § 2347e. Prohibition on grant assistance for certain high income foreign countries

(a) In general
None of the funds made available for a fiscal year for assistance under this part may be made available for assistance on a grant basis for any of the high-income foreign countries described in subsection (b) of this section for military education and training of military and related civilian personnel of such country.
(b) High-income foreign countries described
The high-income foreign countries described in this subsection are Austria, Finland, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Spain.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §546, as added Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §112(c)(1), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1427.)

22 USC § 2347f. Consultation requirement

The selection of foreign personnel for training under this part shall be made in consultation with the United States defense attache to the relevant country.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §547, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title II, §202, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851.)

22 USC § 2347g. Records regarding foreign participants

(a) Development and maintenance of database
In order to contribute most effectively to the development of military professionalism in foreign countries, the Secretary of Defense shall develop and maintain a database containing records on each foreign military or defense ministry civilian participant in education and training activities conducted under this part after December 31, 2000. This record shall include the type of instruction received, the dates of such instruction, whether such instruction was completed successfully, and, to the extent practicable, a record of the person's subsequent military or defense ministry career and current position and location.
(b) Annual list of foreign personnel
For the purposes of preparing the report required pursuant to section 2347h of this title, the Secretary of State may annually request the Secretary of Defense to provide information contained in the database, with respect to a list submitted to the Secretary of Defense by the Secretary of State, that contains the names of foreign personnel or military units. To the extent practicable, the Secretary of Defense shall provide, and the Secretary of State may take into account, the information contained in the database, if any, relating to the Secretary of State's submission.
(c) Updating of database
If the Secretary of State determines and reports to Congress under section 2347h of this title that a foreign person identified in the database maintained pursuant to this section was involved in a violation of internationally recognized human rights, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the database is updated to contain such fact and all relevant information.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §548, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title II, §202, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851; amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1212(b), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1429.)

22 USC § 2347h. Human rights report

(a) In general
Not later than March 1 of each year, the Secretary of State shall submit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report describing, to the extent practicable, any involvement of a foreign military or defense ministry civilian participant in education and training activities under this part in a violation of internationally recognized human rights reported under section 2151n(d) of this title subsequent to such participation.
(b) Form
The report described in subsection (a) of this section shall be in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §549, as added Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1212(a), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1428.)

Part VIII—Antiterrorism Assistance

22 USC § 2349aa. General authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law that restricts assistance to foreign countries (other than sections 2304 and 2371 of this title), the President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, assistance to foreign countries in order to enhance the ability of their law enforcement personnel to deter terrorists and terrorist groups from engaging in international terrorist acts such as bombing, kidnapping, assassination, hostage taking, and hijacking. Such assistance may include training services and the provision of equipment and other commodities related to bomb detection and disposal, management of hostage situations, physical security, and other matters relating to the detection, deterrence, and prevention of acts of terrorism, the resolution of terrorist incidents, and the apprehension of those involved in such acts.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §571, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(a), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

22 USC § 2349aa–1. Purposes

Activities conducted under this part shall be designed—
(1) to enhance the antiterrorism skills of friendly countries by providing training and equipment to deter and counter terrorism;
(2) to strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in this area of great mutual concern; and
(3) to increase respect for human rights by sharing with foreign civil authorities modern, humane, and effective antiterrorism techniques.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §572, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972.)

22 USC § 2349aa–2. Limitations

(a) Services and commodities furnished by agency of United States Government; advance payment
Whenever the President determines it to be consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes of this part, and on such terms and conditions consistent with this chapter as he may determine, any agency of the United States Government is authorized to furnish services and commodities, without charge to funds available to carry out this part, to an eligible foreign country, subject to payment in advance of the value thereof (within the meaning of section 2403(m) of this title) in United States dollars by the foreign country. Credits and the proceeds of guaranteed loans made available to such countries pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.] shall not be used for such payments. Collections under this part shall be credited to the currently applicable appropriation, account, or fund of the agency providing such services and commodities and shall be available for the purposes for which such appropriation, account, or fund is authorized to be used.
(b) Consultation in development and implementation of assistance
The Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor shall be consulted in the determinations of the foreign countries that will be furnished assistance under this part and determinations of the nature of assistance to be furnished to each such country.
(c) Arms and ammunition; value of equipment and commodities
(1) Arms and ammunition may be provided under this part only if they are directly related to antiterrorism assistance.
(2) The value (in terms of original acquisition cost) of all equipment and commodities provided under this part in any fiscal year shall not exceed 30 percent of the funds made available to carry out this part for that fiscal year.
(d) Information exchange activities
This part does not apply to information exchange activities conducted by agencies of the United States Government under other authority for such purposes.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §573, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §501(b), (c), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 99–399, title V, §507, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 873; Pub. L. 101–604, title II, §213(b), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3086; Pub. L. 103–236, title I, §162(e)(3), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §328(a), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1257; Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(b), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

22 USC § 2349aa–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part $72,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, $73,000,000 for fiscal year 2002, and $64,200,000 for fiscal year 2003.
(b) Amounts appropriated under this section are authorized to remain available until expended.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §574, formerly §575, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; amended Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §501(a), Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 219; Pub. L. 99–399, title IV, §401(a)(2), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 862; renumbered §574, Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(d), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428; Pub. L. 106–280, title IV, §401, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 854; Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XII, §1251, Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1433.)

22 USC § 2349aa–5. Administrative authorities

Except where expressly provided to the contrary, any reference in any law to subchapter I of this chapter shall be deemed to include reference to this part and any reference in any law to subchapter II of this chapter shall be deemed to exclude reference to this part.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §575, formerly §576, as added Pub. L. 98–151, §101(b)(2), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 972; renumbered §575, Pub. L. 104–164, title I, §121(d), July 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1428.)

22 USC § 2349aa–7. Coordination of all United States terrorism-related assistance to foreign countries

(a) Responsibility
The Secretary of State shall be responsible for coordinating all assistance related to international terrorism which is provided by the United States Government to foreign countries.
(b) Reports
Not later than February 1 each year, the Secretary of State, in consultation with appropriate United States Government agencies, shall report to the appropriate committees of the Congress on the assistance related to international terrorism which was provided by the United States Government during the preceding fiscal year. Such reports may be provided on a classified basis to the extent necessary, and shall specify the amount and nature of the assistance provided.
(c) Rule of construction
Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to limit or impair the authority or responsibility of any other Federal agency with respect to law enforcement, domestic security operations, or intelligence activities as defined in Executive Order 12333.
(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §502, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 220; Pub. L. 99–399, title V, §503, Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 871.)
Codification
Section was enacted as part of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, and not as part of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 which comprises this chapter.

22 USC § 2349aa–8. Prohibition on imports from and exports to Libya

(a) Prohibition on imports
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may prohibit any article grown, produced, extracted, or manufactured in Libya from being imported into the United States.
(b) Prohibition on exports
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the President may prohibit any goods or technology, including technical data or other information, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or exported by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, from being exported to Libya.
(c) “United States” defined
For purposes of this section, the term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes territories and possessions of the United States.
(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §504, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 221.)

22 USC § 2349aa–9. Ban on importing goods and services from countries supporting terrorism

(a) Authority
The President may ban the importation into the United States of any good or service from any country which supports terrorism or terrorist organizations or harbors terrorists or terrorist organizations.
(b) Consultation
The President, in every possible instance, shall consult with the Congress before exercising the authority granted by this section and shall consult regularly with the Congress so long as that authority is being exercised.
(c) Reports
Whenever the President exercises the authority granted by this section, he shall immediately transmit to the Congress a report specifying—
(1) the country with respect to which the authority is to be exercised and the imports to be prohibited;
(2) the circumstances which necessitate the exercise of such authority;
(3) why the President believes those circumstances justify the exercise of such authority; and
(4) why the President believes the prohibitions are necessary to deal with those circumstances.

At least once during each succeeding 6-month period after transmitting a report pursuant to this subsection, the President shall report to the Congress with respect to the actions taken, since the last such report, pursuant to this section and with respect to any changes which have occurred concerning any information previously furnished pursuant to this subsection.
(d) “United States” defined
For purposes of this section, the term “United States” includes territories and possessions of the United States.
(Pub. L. 99–83, title V, §505, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 221.)

22 USC § 2349aa–10. Antiterrorism assistance

(a) Omitted
(b) Assistance to foreign countries to procure explosives detection devices and other counterterrorism technology
(1) Subject to section 2349aa–4(b) of this title, up to $3,000,000 in any fiscal year may be made available—
(A) to procure explosives detection devices and other counterterrorism technology; and
(B) for joint counterterrorism research and development projects on such technology conducted with NATO and major non-NATO allies under the auspices of the Technical Support Working Group of the Department of State.

(2) As used in this subsection, the term “major non-NATO allies” means those countries designated as major non-NATO allies for purposes of section 2350a(i)(3) of title 10.
(c) Assistance to foreign countries
Notwithstanding any other provision of law (except section 2371 of this title) up to $1,000,000 in assistance may be provided to a foreign country for counterterrorism efforts in any fiscal year if—
(1) such assistance is provided for the purpose of protecting the property of the United States Government or the life and property of any United States citizen, or furthering the apprehension of any individual involved in any act of terrorism against such property or persons; and
(2) the appropriate committees of Congress are notified not later than 15 days prior to the provision of such assistance.
(Pub. L. 104–132, title III, §328, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1257.)

Part IX—Nonproliferation and Export Control Assistance

22 USC § 2349bb. Purposes

The purposes of assistance under this part are to halt the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, and conventional weaponry, through support of activities designed—
(1) to enhance the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of friendly countries by providing training and equipment to detect, deter, monitor, interdict, and counter proliferation;
(2) to strengthen the bilateral ties of the United States with friendly governments by offering concrete assistance in this area of vital national security interest;
(3) to accomplish the activities and objectives set forth in sections 5853 and 5854 of this title, without regard to the limitation of those sections to the independent states of the former Soviet Union; and
(4) to promote multilateral activities, including cooperation with international organizations, relating to nonproliferation.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §581, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 851.)

22 USC § 2349bb–1. Authorization of assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or section 2371 of this title), the President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions as the President may determine, assistance in order to carry out the purposes of this part. Such assistance may include training services and the provision of funds, equipment, and other commodities related to the detection, deterrence, monitoring, interdiction, and prevention or countering of proliferation, the establishment of effective nonproliferation laws and regulations, and the apprehension of those individuals involved in acts of proliferation of such weapons.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §582, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852.)

22 USC § 2349bb–2. Transit interdiction

(a) Allocation of funds
In providing assistance under this part, the President shall ensure that, beginning in fiscal year 2007, not less than one-quarter of the total of such assistance is obligated for the purpose of enhancing the capabilities of friendly countries to detect and interdict proliferation-related shipments of cargo to non-State actors and States of proliferation concern.
(b) Priority to certain countries
Priority shall be given in the apportionment of the assistance described under subsection (a) of this section to any friendly country that has been determined by the Secretary of State to be a country frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.
(c) Cooperative agreements
In order to promote cooperation regarding the interdiction of weapons of mass destruction and related materials and delivery systems, the President is authorized to conclude agreements, including reciprocal maritime agreements, with other countries to facilitate effective measures to prevent the transportation of such items to non-state actors and states of proliferation concern.
(d) Determination and notice to Congress
The Secretary of State shall notify the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate in writing not more than 30 days after making a determination that any friendly country has been determined to be a country eligible for priority consideration of any assistance under subsection (a). Such determination shall set forth the reasons for such determination, and may be submitted in classified and unclassified form, as necessary.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §583, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; amended Pub. L. 109–472, §10(c), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

22 USC § 2349bb–2a. International nonproliferation export control training

(a) General authority
The President is authorized to furnish, on such terms and conditions consistent with this part (but whenever feasible on a reimbursable basis), education and training to appropriate military and civilian personnel of foreign countries for the purpose of enhancing the nonproliferation and export control capabilities of such personnel through their attendance in special courses of instruction conducted by the United States.
(b) Administration of courses
The Secretary of State shall have overall responsibility for the development and conduct of international nonproliferation education and training programs under this section, and may utilize other departments and agencies of the United States, as appropriate, to recommend personnel for the education and training and to administer specific courses of instruction.
(c) Purposes
Education and training activities conducted under this section shall be—
(1) of a technical nature, emphasizing techniques for detecting, deterring, monitoring, interdicting, and countering proliferation;
(2) designed to encourage effective and mutually beneficial relations and increased understanding between the United States and friendly countries; and
(3) designed to improve the ability of friendly countries to utilize their resources with maximum effectiveness, thereby contributing to greater self-reliance by such countries.
(d) Priority to certain countries
In selecting personnel for education and training pursuant to this section, priority should be given to personnel from countries determined by the Secretary of State to be countries frequently transited by proliferation-related shipments of cargo.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §584, as added Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(2), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

22 USC § 2349bb–3. Limitations

The limitations contained in section 2349aa–2(a) and (d) of this title shall apply to this part.
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §585, formerly §584,as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §585, Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1436.)

22 USC § 2349bb–4. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to the President to carry out this part $162,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.
(b) Availability of funds
Funds made available under subsection (a) of this section may be used notwithstanding any other provision of law (other than section 2304 or 2371 of this title) and shall remain available until expended.
(c) Treatment of appropriations
Amounts made available by the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, under “Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related Programs” and “Assistance for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union” accounts for the activities described in subsection (d) of this section shall be considered to be made available pursuant to this part.
(d) Covered activities
The activities referred to in subsection (c) of this section are—
(1) assistance under the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund;
(2) assistance for science and technology centers in the independent states of the former Soviet Union;
(3) export control assistance; and
(4) export control and border assistance under part XI of subchapter I of this chapter or the FREEDOM Support Act (22 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.).
(Pub. L. 87–195, pt. II, §586, formerly §585, as added Pub. L. 106–280, title III, §301, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 852; renumbered §586 and amended Pub. L. 107–228, div. B, title XIII, §§1301(a), 1303(1), Sept. 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 1435, 1436.)

22 USC § 2349bb–5. Proliferation interdiction assistance

Consistent with section 2349bb–2 of this title, the President is authorized to provide assistance to friendly foreign countries for proliferation detection and interdiction activities and for developing complementary capabilities.
(Pub. L. 109–472, §10(a), Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)

22 USC § 2349bb–6. Safeguarding and elimination of conventional arms

(a) In general
The Secretary of State is authorized to secure, remove, or eliminate stocks of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), small arms and light weapons, stockpiled munitions, abandoned ordnance, and other conventional weapons, including tactical missile systems (hereafter in this section referred to as “MANPADS and other conventional weapons”), as well as related equipment and facilities, located outside the United States that are determined by the Secretary to pose a proliferation threat.
(b) Elements
The activities authorized under subsection (a) may include the following:
(1) Humanitarian demining activities.
(2) The elimination or securing of MANPADS.
(3) The elimination or securing of other conventional weapons.
(4) Assistance to countries in the safe handling and proper storage of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.
(5) Cooperative programs with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other international organizations to assist countries in the safe handling and proper storage or elimination of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.
(6) The utilization of funds for the elimination or safeguarding of MANPADS and other conventional weapons.
(7) Activities to secure and safeguard MANPADS and other conventional weapons.
(8) Actions to ensure that equipment and funds, including security upgrades at locations for the storage or disposition of MANPADS and other conventional weapons and related equipment that are determined by the Secretary of State to pose a proliferation threat, continue to be used for authorized purposes.
(c) Rule of construction
Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the authorities of the Secretary of Defense.
(Pub. L. 109–472, §11, Jan. 11, 2007, 120 Stat. 3557.)