U.S. Code Title 22: Foreign Relations and Intercourse
Chapter 23: Protection of Citizens Abroad
*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.
**Selected Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law
- CHAPTER 23—PROTECTION OF CITIZENS ABROAD
All naturalized citizens of the United States while in foreign countries are entitled to and shall receive from this Government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born citizens.
R.S. §2000 derived from Act July 27, 1868, ch. 249, §2, 15 Stat. 224.
Section was formerly classified to section 903a of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.
Equitable Treatment by United States of Its Citizens Living Abroad
Pub. L. 95–426, title VI, §611, Oct. 7, 1978, 92 Stat. 989, as amended by Pub. L. 96–60, title IV, §407, Aug. 15, 1979, 93 Stat. 405; Pub. L. 97–241, title V, §505(a)(2), (b)(1), Aug. 24, 1982, 96 Stat. 299, provided that: “The Congress finds that—
“(1) United States citizens living abroad should be provided fair and equitable treatment by the United States Government with regard to taxation, citizenship of progeny, veterans’ benefits, voting rights, Social Security benefits, and other obligations, rights, and benefits; and
“(2) United States statutes and regulations should be designed so as not to create competitive disadvantage for individual American citizens living abroad or working in international markets.”
Whenever it is made known to the President that any citizen of the United States has been unjustly deprived of his liberty by or under the authority of any foreign government, it shall be the duty of the President forthwith to demand of that government the reasons of such imprisonment; and if it appears to be wrongful and in violation of the rights of American citizenship, the President shall forthwith demand the release of such citizen, and if the release so demanded is unreasonably delayed or refused, the President shall use such means, not amounting to acts of war and not otherwise prohibited by law, as he may think necessary and proper to obtain or effectuate the release; and all the facts and proceedings relative thereto shall as soon as practicable be communicated by the President to Congress.
(R.S. §2001; Pub. L. 101–222, §9, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1900.)
R.S. §2001 derived from act July 27, 1868, ch. 249, §3, 15 Stat. 224.
Section was formerly classified to section 903b of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.
1989—Pub. L. 101–222 inserted “and not otherwise prohibited by law” after “acts of war”.
Release of American Hostages in Iran
For Executive Order provisions relating to the release of the American hostages in Iran, see Ex. Ord. Nos. 12276 to 12285, Jan. 19, 1981, 46 F.R. 7913 to 7932, listed in a table under section 1701 of Title 50, War and National Defense.