Statutory Law - US Code - Title 18: Chapter 203: Arrest and Commitment


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U.S. Code Title 18: Crimes and Criminal Procedure


Chapter 203: Arrest and Commitment

*Current through Public Law 112-173, August 16th, 2012.
**Selected Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law

CHAPTER 203—ARREST AND COMMITMENT

18 USC § 3041. Power of courts and magistrates

For any offense against the United States, the offender may, by any justice or judge of the United States, or by any United States magistrate judge, or by any chancellor, judge of a supreme or superior court, chief or first judge of the common pleas, mayor of a city, justice of the peace, or other magistrate, of any state where the offender may be found, and at the expense of the United States, be arrested and imprisoned or released as provided in chapter 207 of this title, as the case may be, for trial before such court of the United States as by law has cognizance of the offense. Copies of the process shall be returned as speedily as may be into the office of the clerk of such court, together with the recognizances of the witnesses for their appearances to testify in the case.
A United States judge or magistrate judge shall proceed under this section according to rules promulgated by the Supreme Court of the United States. Any state judge or magistrate acting hereunder may proceed according to the usual mode of procedure of his state but his acts and orders shall have no effect beyond determining, pursuant to the provisions of section 3142 of this title, whether to detain or conditionally release the prisoner prior to trial or to discharge him from arrest.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 89–465, §5(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(1), (3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

18 USC § 3042. Extraterritorial jurisdiction

Section 3041 of this title shall apply in any country where the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction for the arrest and removal therefrom to the United States of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States, and shall also apply throughout the United States for the arrest and removal therefrom to the jurisdiction of any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction, of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States in any country where it exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction.
Such fugitive first mentioned may, by any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction and agreeably to the usual mode of process against offenders subject to such jurisdiction, be arrested and detained or conditionally released pursuant to section 3142 of this title, as the case may be, pending the issuance of a warrant for his removal, which warrant the principal officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in the country where the fugitive shall be found shall seasonably issue, and the United States marshal or corresponding officer shall execute.
Such marshal or other officer, or the deputies of such marshal or officer, when engaged in executing such warrant without the jurisdiction of the court to which they are attached, shall have all the powers of a marshal of the United States so far as such powers are requisite for the prisoner's safekeeping and the execution of the warrant.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985.)

18 USC § 3046. Warrant or summons—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
Issuance upon complaint, Rule 4.
Issuance upon indictment, Rule 9.
Summons on request of government; form; contents; service; return, Rules 4, 9.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

18 USC § 3051. Powers of Special Agents of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

(a) Special agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, as well as any other investigator or officer charged by the Attorney General with the duty of enforcing any of the criminal, seizure, or forfeiture provisions of the laws of the United States, may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.
(b) Any special agent of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives may, in respect to the performance of his or her duties, make seizures of property subject to forfeiture to the United States.
(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), and except to the extent that such provisions conflict with the provisions of section 983 of title 18, United States Code, insofar as section 983 applies, the provisions of the Customs laws relating to—
(A) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property;
(B) the disposition of such property;
(C) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture; and
(D) the compromise of claims,

shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any applicable provision of law enforced or administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), duties that are imposed upon a customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws of the United States shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this section by such officers, agents, or any other person as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.
(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the disposition of firearms forfeited by reason of a violation of any law of the United States shall be governed by the provisions of section 5872(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
(Added Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1113, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2279.)

18 USC § 3052. Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, inspectors, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §1, 64 Stat. 1239.)

18 USC § 3056. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service

(a) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service is authorized to protect the following persons:
(1) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, and the Vice President-elect.
(2) The immediate families of those individuals listed in paragraph (1).
(3) Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, except that protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage unless the former President did not serve as President prior to January 1, 1997, in which case, former Presidents and their spouses for a period of not more than ten years from the date a former President leaves office, except that—
(A) protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage or the divorce from, or death of a former President; and
(B) should the death of a President occur while in office or within one year after leaving office, the spouse shall receive protection for one year from the time of such death:

Provided, That the Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time if the Secretary of Homeland Security or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection.
(4) Children of a former President who are under 16 years of age for a period not to exceed ten years or upon the child becoming 16 years of age, whichever comes first.
(5) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.
(6) Other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad when the President directs that such protection be provided.
(7) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates. As used in this paragraph, the term “major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates” means those individuals identified as such by the Secretary of Homeland Security after consultation with an advisory committee consisting of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, the majority and minority leaders of the Senate, and one additional member selected by the other members of the committee. The Committee shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2).
(8) Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, and their children who are under 16 years of age, for a period of not more than six months after the date the former Vice President leaves office. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time thereafter if the Secretary of Homeland Security or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection.

The protection authorized in paragraphs (2) through (8) may be declined.
(b) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized to detect and arrest any person who violates—
(1) section 508, 509, 510, 871, or 879 of this title or, with respect to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, and Federal land bank associations, section 213, 216, 433, 493, 657, 709, 1006, 1007, 1011, 1013, 1014, 1907, or 1909 of this title;
(2) any of the laws of the United States relating to coins, obligations, and securities of the United States and of foreign governments; or
(3) any of the laws of the United States relating to electronic fund transfer frauds, access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, and any fraud or other criminal or unlawful activity in or against any federally insured financial institution; except that the authority conferred by this paragraph shall be exercised subject to the agreement of the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security and shall not affect the authority of any other Federal law enforcement agency with respect to those laws.

(c)(1) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, officers and agents of the Secret Service are authorized to—
(A) execute warrants issued under the laws of the United States;
(B) carry firearms;
(C) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony;
(D) offer and pay rewards for services and information leading to the apprehension of persons involved in the violation or potential violation of those provisions of law which the Secret Service is authorized to enforce;
(E) pay expenses for unforeseen emergencies of a confidential nature under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security and accounted for solely on the Secretary's certificate; and
(F) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.

(2) Funds expended from appropriations available to the Secret Service for the purchase of counterfeits and subsequently recovered shall be reimbursed to the appropriations available to the Secret Service at the time of the reimbursement.
(d) Whoever knowingly and willfully obstructs, resists, or interferes with a Federal law enforcement agent engaged in the performance of the protective functions authorized by this section or by section 1752 of this title shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.
(e)(1) When directed by the President, the United States Secret Service is authorized to participate, under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations at special events of national significance, as determined by the President.
(2) At the end of each fiscal year, the President through such agency or office as the President may designate, shall report to the Congress—
(A) what events, if any, were designated special events of national significance for security purposes under paragraph (1); and
(B) the criteria and information used in making each designation.

(f) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized, at the request of any State or local law enforcement agency, or at the request of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, to provide forensic and investigative assistance in support of any investigation involving missing or exploited children.
(g) The United States Secret Service shall be maintained as a distinct entity within the Department of Homeland Security and shall not be merged with any other Department function. No personnel and operational elements of the United States Secret Service shall report to an individual other than the Director of the United States Secret Service, who shall report directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security without being required to report through any other official of the Department.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §4, 65 Stat. 122; Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1143, §2, 68 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 86–168, title I, §104(h), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 387; Pub. L. 87–791, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 87–829, §3, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 89–186, Sept. 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 791; Pub. L. 89–218, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 90–608, ch. XI, §1101, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1198; Pub. L. 91–644, title V, §19, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1892; Pub. L. 91–651, §4, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 93–346, §8, July 12, 1974, as added Pub. L. 93–552, title VI, §609(a), Dec. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1765; Pub. L. 94–408, §2, Sept. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 97–297, §3, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 97–308, §2, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1452; Pub. L. 98–151, §115(b), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 98–587, §1(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3110; Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §530, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(i), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 106–544, §3, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716; Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §506(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 367; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1703(a)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2313; Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §322, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §§604, 607, 608(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253, 256; Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §102, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560.)

18 USC § 3056A. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service Uniformed Division

(a) There is hereby created and established a permanent police force, to be known as the “United States Secret Service Uniformed Division”. Subject to the supervision of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall perform such duties as the Director, United States Secret Service, may prescribe in connection with the protection of the following:
(1) The White House in the District of Columbia.
(2) Any building in which Presidential offices are located.
(3) The Treasury Building and grounds.
(4) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, the Vice President-elect, and their immediate families.
(5) Foreign diplomatic missions located in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.
(6) The temporary official residence of the Vice President and grounds in the District of Columbia.
(7) Foreign diplomatic missions located in metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) in the United States where there are located twenty or more such missions headed by full-time officers, except that such protection shall be provided only—
(A) on the basis of extraordinary protective need;
(B) upon request of an affected metropolitan area; and
(C) when the extraordinary protective need arises at or in association with a visit to—
(i) a permanent mission to, or an observer mission invited to participate in the work of, an international organization of which the United States is a member; or
(ii) an international organization of which the United States is a member;

except that such protection may also be provided for motorcades and at other places associated with any such visit and may be extended at places of temporary domicile in connection with any such visit.

(8) Foreign consular and diplomatic missions located in such areas in the United States, its territories and possessions, as the President, on a case-by-case basis, may direct.
(9) Visits of foreign government officials to metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) where there are located twenty or more consular or diplomatic missions staffed by accredited personnel, including protection for motorcades and at other places associated with such visits when such officials are in the United States to conduct official business with the United States Government.
(10) Former Presidents and their spouses, as provided in section 3056(a)(3) of title 18.
(11) An event designated under section 3056(e) of title 18 as a special event of national significance.
(12) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates, as provided in section 3056(a)(7) of title 18.
(13) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.

(b)(1) Under the direction of the Director of the Secret Service, members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division are authorized to—
(A) carry firearms;
(B) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony; and
(C) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.

(2) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall possess privileges and powers similar to those of the members of the Metropolitan Police of the District of Columbia.
(c) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall be furnished with uniforms and other necessary equipment.
(d) In carrying out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland Security may utilize, with their consent, on a reimbursable basis, the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of State and local governments, and is authorized to reimburse such State and local governments for the utilization of such services, personnel, equipment, and facilities. The Secretary of Homeland Security may carry out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a) by contract. The authority of this subsection may be transferred by the President to the Secretary of State. In carrying out any duty under paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of State is authorized to utilize any authority available to the Secretary under title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956.
(Added Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §605(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253.)

18 USC § 3061. Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel

(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, Postal Inspectors and other agents of the United States Postal Service designated by the Board of Governors to investigate criminal matters related to the Postal Service and the mails may—
(1) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States;
(2) make arrests without warrant for offenses against the United States committed in their presence;
(3) make arrests without warrant for felonies cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony;
(4) carry firearms; and
(5) make seizures of property as provided by law.

(b) The powers granted by subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised only—
(1) in the enforcement of laws regarding property in the custody of the Postal Service, property of the Postal Service, the use of the mails, and other postal offenses; and
(2) to the extent authorized by the Attorney General pursuant to agreement between the Attorney General and the Postal Service, in the enforcement of other laws of the United States, if the Attorney General determines that violations of such laws have a detrimental effect upon the operations of the Postal Service.

(c)(1) The Postal Service may employ police officers for duty in connection with the protection of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or under the charge and control of the Postal Service, and persons on that property, including duty in areas outside the property to the extent necessary to protect the property and persons on the property.
(2) With respect to such property, such officers shall have the power to—
(A) enforce Federal laws and regulations for the protection of persons and property;
(B) carry firearms; and
(C) make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the Unites States committed in the presence of the officer or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony.

(3) With respect to such property, such officers may have, to such extent as the Postal Service may by regulations prescribe, the power to—
(A) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States; and
(B) conduct investigations, on and off the property in question, of offenses that may have been committed against property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or persons on the property.

(4)(A) As to such property, the Postmaster General may prescribe regulations necessary for the protection and administration of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service and persons on the property. The regulations may include reasonable penalties, within the limits prescribed in subparagraph (B), for violations of the regulations. The regulations shall be posted and remain posted in a conspicuous place on the property.
(B) A person violating a regulation prescribed under this subsection shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 30 days, or both.
(Added Pub. L. 90–560, §5(a), Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 998; amended Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6251(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4362; Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1001, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3254.)

18 USC § 3062. General arrest authority for violation of release conditions

A law enforcement officer, who is authorized to arrest for an offense committed in his presence, may arrest a person who is released pursuant to chapter 207 if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is violating, in his presence, a condition imposed on the person pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii), or, if the violation involves a failure to remain in a specified institution as required, a condition imposed pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x).
(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7052, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4401.)
Amendments
1988—Pub. L. 100–690 substituted “section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii)” for “section 3142(c)(2)(D), (c)(2)(E), (c)(2)(H), (c)(2)(I), or (c)(2)(M)” and “section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x)” for “section 3142(c)(2)(J)”.