Secondary Authority - CRS Reports - Constitutional Law


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CRS Analysis of Constitutional Provisions Relevant to U.S. Intelligence Law

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CRS Analysis Relevant to the U.S. Constitution

  • THE PREAMBLE
    • THE PREAMBLE (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE I [LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT]
    • ARTICLE I [LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
    • RL30240, Frederick M. Kaiser & Walter J. Oleszek, Congressional Oversight Manual (May 1, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL30725, Mildred Amer, The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor (May 23, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL30796, Clay H. Wellborn & Michael Kolakowski, Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer (January 9, 2001). (.pdf)
    • RL30343, Sandy Streeter, Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices (September 26, 2000). (.pdf)
    • RL30812, Cassandra L. Foley, Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them (January 30, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS20095, James V. Saturno, The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview (January 28, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RS20145, Mildred Amer, Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview (November 3, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS20617, Richard S. Beth, How Bills Amend Statutes (August 4, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL32935, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Oversight of Judges and Justices (May 31, 2005). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-589, Yule Kim, Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends (August 31, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-684, Sandy Streeter, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (December 2, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-936 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight (January 3, 2006). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 94-261, Richard A. Best Jr., Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-865, James V. Saturno, Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process (June 23, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 94-166, Charles Doyle, Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law (March 26, 2010). (.pdf).
    • Order Code 98-425 GOV, Christopher M. Davis, Invoking Cloture in the Senate (June 4, 2007). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-459 GOV, Richard C. Sachs, Introducing a Senate Bill or Resolution (April 21, 2003). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-544 GOV, Judy Schneider, Subcommittees in the House of Representatives (May 3, 2007). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-721, Robert Keith & Allen Schick, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (November 20, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-241 GOV, Thomas P. Carr, Committee Types and Roles (February 14, 2002). (.pdf)
    • RL34473, Pat Towell & Stephen Daggett, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (May 5, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34473, Pat Towell, Stephen Daggett, & Amy Belasco, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (February 25, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL34505, Catherine Dale, National Security Strategy: Legislative Mandates, Execution to Date, and Considerations for Congress (December 15, 2008). (.pdf)
    • R40136, Alfred Cumming, Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (January 28, 2010). (.pdf)
    • Memorandum To Senator Dianne Feinstein from Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (December 14, 2005). (.pdf)
    • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions (January 18, 2006). (.pdf)
    • R41003, Elizabeth Rybicki, Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects (January 4, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL30945, Judy Schneider, House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison (April 16, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL31126, Jack Maskell, Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules (October 24, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL31351, Todd B. Tatelman & Henry B. Hogue, Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview (November 18, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS21908, Judy Schneider, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Term Limits and Assignment Limitations (October 14, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RS21945, Stephen Daggett, The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RS22123, Judy Schneider, House Select Committee on Intelligence: Leadership and Assignment Limitations (April 25, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS22230, Kevin R. Kosar, Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RS21955, Paul S. Rundquist & Christopher M. Davis, S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters (October 15, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL31594, R. Eric Petersen & Jeffrey W. Seifert, Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges (March 25, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (May 27, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (January 27, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RS20794, Judy Schneider, The Committee System in the U.S. Congress (May 2, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RS20991, Judy Schneider, Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff (June 5, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33895, Pamela Hairston, Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources (February 28, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34097, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure (April 15, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34114, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: A Sketch (August 1, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (October 3, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (August 20, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (July 12, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (June 11, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL33471, Ida A. Brudnick, The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process (March 19, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (December 27, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (January 5, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL33215, Louis Fisher, National Security Whistleblowers (December 30, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32609, Thomas J. Nicola, 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Intelligence Budget (September 27, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL32659, Sandy Streeter, Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives (October 29, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL32508, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress (February 22, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (May 9, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (March 29, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL32113, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Intervention in the Administrative Process: Legal and Ethical Considerations (September 25, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL32171, Kenneth R. Thomas, Limiting Court Jurisdiction Over Federal Constitutional Issues: “Court-Stripping” (January 24, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32120, Audrey Kurth Cronin, The “FTO List” and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (October 21, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL31836, Louis Fisher, Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power (April 2, 2003). (.pdf)
    • R40691, Alfred Cumming, Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
    • R40698, Alfred Cumming, “Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL30315, Kenneth R. Thomas, Federalism, State Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power (February 1, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL32120, Audrey Kurth Cronin, The “FTO List” and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (October 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE II [EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT]
    • ARTICLE II [EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
    • R41305, Vanessa K. Burrows, Supreme Court Nominee Elena Kagan: Administrative Law and the Nondelegation Doctrine (June 25, 2010). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-186, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Anna C. Henning, Impeachment: An Overview of Overview of Procedure, and Practice (April 26, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL34692, Thomas H. Neale, Presidential Succession: Perspectives, Contemporary Analysis, and 110th Congress Proposed Legislation (October 3, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 95-964 S, Charles Doyle, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law (June 1, 2000). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-71, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Access to Government Information In the United States (August 31, 2009). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-771 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (April 23, 2007). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 97-771, Kevin R. Kosar, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (December 31, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS20590, Jennifer Elsea, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch (June 6, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS20443, Frederick M. Kaiser, American National Government: An Overview (May 20, 2003). (.pdf)
    • R40603, Edward C. Liu, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information (May 28, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL30959, Henry B. Hogue, Maureen Bearden, & Terrence L. Lisbeth, Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations (March 18, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL31351, Todd B. Tatelman & Henry B. Hogue, Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview (November 18, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL31112, Louis Fisher, Recess Appointments of Federal Judges (September 5, 2001). (.pdf)
    • RS20846, Vanessa K. Burrows, Executive Orders: Issuance and Revocation (March 25, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RS21012, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (September 14, 2001). (.pdf)
    • RS21012, Charles Doyle & Jennifer Elsea, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (May 27, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS21037, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary (January 4, 2002). (.pdf)
    • RS21636, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Identities Protection Act (October 3, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RS21900, Nathan Brooks, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (August 5, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RS21900, Jennifer K. Elsea, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL30319, Morton Rosenberg, Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments (August 21, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL30795, Clinton T. Brass, General Management Laws: A Compendium (May 19, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL33667, T.J. Halstead, Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications (September 17, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34303, Charles Doyle, Obstruction of Justice: an Overview of Some of the Federal Statutes that Prohibit Interference with Judicial, Executive, or Legislative Activities (December 27, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL33494, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues (March 8, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL33502, Jennifer K. Elsea, Protection of National Security Information (December 26, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL30824, Harold C. Relyea, The Privacy Act: Emerging Issues and Related Legislation (February 26, 2002). (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE III [JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT]
    • ARTICLE III [JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
    • R40603, Edward C. Liu, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information (May 28, 2009). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 95-717, Henry Cohen, Federal Tort Claims Act (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 89-172 A, Larry M. Eig, Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA): An Overview (March 2, 1989). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-606 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-611, Harold C. Relyea, Presidential Directives: Background and Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-505 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, National Emergency Powers (August 30, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RS22432, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch (April 28, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RS21056, Jennifer Elsea, Trying Terrorists as War Criminals (October 29, 2001). (.pdf)
    • RL34697, Anna C. Henning, Supreme Court Appellate Jurisdiction Over Military Court Cases (October 6, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34600, Edward C. Liu, Retroactive Immunity Provided by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (July 25, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (June 16, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (September 8, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL34444, Yule Kim, Removing Aliens from the United States: Judicial Review of Removal Orders (September 25, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL33473, Nathan James, Judicial Security: Comparison of Legislation in the 110th Congress (July 11, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL33386, Jody Feder, Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer (October 24, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33391, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview (April 26, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL33223, Charles Doyle, Venue: A Legal Analysis of Where a Federal Crime May Be Tried (December 28, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL33247, Richard S. Beth & Betsy Palmer, Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2009 (June 5, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL33259, Lisa M. Seghetti & Nathan James, Federal Habeas Corpus Relief: Background, Legislation, and Issues (February 1, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL32935, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Oversight of Judges and Justices (May 31, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32963, Ryan J. Watson, The Availability of Judicial Review Regarding Military Base Closures and Realignments (June 24, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL33180, Jennifer K. Elsea, Michael John Garcia, & Kenneth R. Thomas, Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court (July 29, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS22466, Jennifer K. Elsea, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: Military Commissions in the “Global War on Terrorism” (July 6, 2006). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-292, P.L. Morgan, Promulgating Procedural Rules for the United States District Courts and Courts of Appeals (March 26, 1998). (.pdf)
    • R41299, Susan Navarro Smelcer & Kenneth R. Thomas, From Solicitor General to Supreme Court Nominee: Responsibilities, History, and the Nomination of Elena Kagan (June 23, 2010). (.pdf)
    • R40944, Brian T. Yeh & Lydia Grunstra, The Copyright Registration Requirement and Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Legal Analysis of Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick (November 30, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS22406, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RS22122, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Intelligence Investigations: A Sketch (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RS22407, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
    • R40802, Susan Navarro Smelcer, Supreme Court Justices: Demographic Characteristics, Professional Experience, and Legal Education, 1789-2010 (April 9, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL31989, Denis Steven Rutkus, Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate (February 19, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL32171, Kenneth R. Thomas, Limiting Court Jurisdiction Over Federal Constitutional Issues: “Court-Stripping” (January 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE IV [STATES’ RELATIONS]
    • ARTICLE IV [STATES’ RELATIONS] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE V [MODE OF AMENDMENT]
    • ARTICLE V [MODE OF AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VI [PRIOR DEBTS, NATIONAL SUPREMACY, AND OATHS OF OFFICE]
    • ARTICLE VI [PRIOR DEBTS, NATIONAL SUPREMACY, AND OATHS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VII [RATIFICATION]
    • ARTICLE VII [RATIFICATION] (.pdf)
  • FIRST AMENDMENT [RELIGION AND EXPRESSION]
    • FIRST AMENDMENT [RELIGION AND EXPRESSION] (.pdf)
    • Order Code 95-815, Henry Cohen, Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment (October 16, 2009). (.pdf)
    • R40766, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Issues for the 111th Congress (August 12, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL31695, Dana A. Shea, Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress (February 2, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL31730, Gina Marie Stevens, Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL31786, Amy Belasco, Total Information Awareness Programs: Funding, Composition, and Oversight Issues (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (September 14, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (March 20, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL32750, Kevin R. Kosar, Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities (March 21, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 10, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 21, 2008). (.pdf)
    • R41404, Jennifer K. Elsea, Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information (December 6, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL33215, Louis Fisher, National Security Whistleblowers (December 30, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL33303, Genevieve J. Knezo, “Sensitive But Unclassified” Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information (February 15, 2006). (.pdf)
  • SECOND AMENDMENT [BEARING ARMS]
    • SECOND AMENDMENT [BEARING ARMS] (.pdf)
  • THIRD AMENDMENT [QUARTERING SOLDIERS]
    • THIRD AMENDMENT [QUARTERING SOLDIERS] (.pdf)
  • FOURTH AMENDMENT [SEARCH AND SEIZURE]
    • FOURTH AMENDMENT [SEARCH AND SEIZURE] (.pdf)
    • Memorandum To Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Attention: Mike Davidson, From American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Probable Cause, Reasonable Suspicion, and Reasonableness Standards in the Context of the Fourth Amendment and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (January 30, 2006). (.pdf)
    • R40077, Anna C. Henning, Compulsory DNA Collection: A Fourth Amendment Analysis (January 23, 2009). (.pdf)
    • EBTER135, Marcia S . Smith, Internet Privacy : Law Enforcement Monitoring of E- Mail and Web Usage (August 17, 2004). (.pdf)
    • Memorandum From Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information (January 5, 2006). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-67, Lennard G. Kruger, John D. Moteff, Angele A. Gilroy, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Patricia Moloney Figliola, & Rita Tehan, Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth (January 5, 2007). (.pdf)
    • R40836, Catherine A. Theohary & John Rollins, Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress (January 12, 2010). (.pdf)
    • R40980, Anna C. Henning, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Charles Doyle, & Edward C. Liu, Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization (March 2, 2010). (.pdf)
    • R40138, Edward C. Liu, Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009 (March 16, 2009). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-326, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (December 3, 2009). (.pdf)
    • Order Code 98-327, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (September 2, 2008). (.pdf)
    • R40427, John Rollings & Anna C. Henning, Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations (March 10, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL30465, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL30677, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (June 8, 2007). (.pdf)
    • R41120, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Kennon H. Nakamura, Casey L. Addis, & Thomas Lum, U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology (April 5, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL31200, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act (December 10, 2001). (.pdf)
    • RL31289, Marcia S. Smith, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Glenn J. McLoughlin, & John Dimitri Moteff, The Internet and the USA PATRIOT Act: Potential Implications for Electronic Privacy, Security, Commerce, and Government (March 4, 2002). (.pdf)
    • RL31377, Charles Doyle, The USA PATRIOT Act: A Legal Analysis (April 15, 2002). (.pdf)
    • RL31408, Marcia S. Smith, Internet Privacy: Overview and Legislation in the 109th Congress, 1st Session (January 26, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL31636, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Wireless Privacy and Spam: Issues for Congress (December 28, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL34279, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RS22011, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: “Lone Wolf” Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (December 29, 2004). (.pdf)
    • RL34566, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RS21472, Jennifer Elsea, Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113 (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL33833, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review: An Overview (January 24, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34404, Yule Kim, Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices (July 28, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (August 23, 2007). (.pdf)
    • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (February 14, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33637, Elizabeth B. Bazan, H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): “Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act” (September 8, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL33424, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Edward C. Liu, & Gina Stevens, Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities (February 2, 2010). (.pdf)
    • RL32608, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress (January 11, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL31826, Yule Kim, Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment (June 29, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining: An Overview (June 7, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (January 27, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL33320, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
    • RL33321, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
    • RL32880, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
    • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (October 17, 2003). (.pdf)
    • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (January 29, 2008). (.pdf)
    • RL33332, Brian T. Yeh & Charles Doyle, USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
  • FIFTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF PERSONS]
    • FIFTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF PERSONS] (.pdf)
  • SIXTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF ACCUSED IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS]
    • SIXTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF ACCUSED IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CIVIL TRIALS]
    • SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CIVIL TRIALS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTH AMENDMENT [FURTHER GUARANTEES IN CRIMINAL CASES]
    • EIGHTH AMENDMENT [FURTHER GUARANTEES IN CRIMINAL CASES] (.pdf)
  • NINTH AMENDMENT [UNENUMERATED RIGHTS]
    • NINTH AMENDMENT [UNENUMERATED RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TENTH AMENDMENT [RESERVED POWERS]
    • TENTH AMENDMENT [RESERVED POWERS] (.pdf)
  • ELEVENTH AMENDMENT [SUITS AGAINST STATES]
    • ELEVENTH AMENDMENT [SUITS AGAINST STATES] (.pdf)
  • TWELFTH AMENDMENT [ELECTION OF PRESIDENT]
    • TWELFTH AMENDMENT [ELECTION OF PRESIDENT] (.pdf)
  • THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT [SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE]
    • THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT [SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE] (.pdf)
  • FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS GUARANTEED, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENSHIP, DUE PROCESS AND EQUAL PROTECTION]
    • FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS GUARANTEED, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENSHIP, DUE PROCESS AND EQUAL PROTECTION] (.pdf)
  • FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO VOTE]
    • FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO VOTE] (.pdf)
  • SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT [INCOME TAX]
    • SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT [INCOME TAX] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT [POPULAR ELECTION OF SENATORS]
    • SEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT [POPULAR ELECTION OF SENATORS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT [PROHIBITION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS]
    • EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT [PROHIBITION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS] (.pdf)
  • NINETEENTH AMENDMENT [WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE RIGHTS]
    • NINETEENTH AMENDMENT [WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TWENTIETH AMENDMENT [COMMENCEMENT OF THE TERMS OF OFFICE]
    • TWENTIETH AMENDMENT [COMMENCEMENT OF THE TERMS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIRST AMENDMENT [REPEAL OF THE EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT]
    • TWENTY-FIRST AMENDMENT [REPEAL OF THE EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SECOND AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL TENURE]
    • TWENTY-SECOND AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL TENURE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FOR D.C.]
    • TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FOR D.C.] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT [ABOLITION OF THE POLL TAX]
    • TWENTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT [ABOLITION OF THE POLL TAX] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL VACANCY AND DISABILITY]
    • TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL VACANCY AND DISABILITY] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT [REDUCTION OF VOTING AGE]
    • TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT [REDUCTION OF VOTING AGE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CONGRESSIONAL PAY LIMITATION]
    • TWENTY-SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CONGRESSIONAL PAY LIMITATION] (.pdf)
  • Miscellaneous Constitutional Law Analysis and Indexes
    • [PREFACE TO THE BILL OF RIGHTS] AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION: FIRST THROUGH TENTH AMENDMENTS [Bill of Rights] (.pdf)
    • STATE CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY PROVISIONS AND MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL OR HELD TO BE PREEMPTED BY FEDERAL LAW (1789–2002) (.pdf)
    • ACTS OF CONGRESS HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES (.pdf)
    • SUPREME COURT DECISIONS OVERRULED BY SUBSEQUENT DECISION (.pdf)
    • TABLE OF CASES (.pdf)
    • INDEX (.pdf)