Secondary Authority - CRS Reports


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Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports on U.S. Intelligence Law

This library contains useful background reports on topics related to U.S. intelligence law. Each report was produced for members of Congress by experts at the Congressional Research Service ("CRS"). CRS is part of the Library of Congress and serves as the research arm of both the House and the Senate. CRS facilitates the legislative process by providing expert analysis on all subjects relevant to federal legislation. Because of the gravity of its responsibilities and importance to the federal legislative process, CRS employs one of the best teams of legislative attorneys and subject-matter experts in the country. CRS prides itself on producing neutral analysis for use by both Republican and Democratic members of Congress. Their reports are exceptional in terms of the clarity of presentation, neutrality of viewpoint, and depth of expertise on every page. Their remarkable quality makes CRS reports among the most reliable tools available to American journalists, intelligence lawyers, and citizens trying to develop an expert understanding of U.S. intelligence law.

 

Full Index of CRS Reports
Organized by Report Number

  • Order Code 89-172 A, Larry M. Eig, Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA): An Overview (March 2, 1989). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 94-166, Charles Doyle, Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law (March 26, 2010). (.pdf).
  • Order Code 94-261, Richard A. Best Jr., Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-717, Henry Cohen, Federal Tort Claims Act (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-815, Henry Cohen, Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment (October 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-964 S, Charles Doyle, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law (June 1, 2000). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-71, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Access to Government Information In the United States (August 31, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-589, Yule Kim, Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends (August 31, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-684, Sandy Streeter, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (December 2, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-771 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (April 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-771, Kevin R. Kosar, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (December 31, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-865, James V. Saturno, Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process (June 23, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-896, Jeanne J. Grimmett, Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties (January 3, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-936 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight (January 3, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-67, Lennard G. Kruger, John D. Moteff, Angele A. Gilroy, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Patricia Moloney Figliola, & Rita Tehan, Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth (January 5, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-186, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Anna C. Henning, Impeachment: An Overview of Overview of Procedure, and Practice (April 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-241 GOV, Thomas P. Carr, Committee Types and Roles (February 14, 2002). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-292, P.L. Morgan, Promulgating Procedural Rules for the United States District Courts and Courts of Appeals (March 26, 1998). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-326, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (December 3, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-327, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (September 2, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution (November 15, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present (September 25, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-425 GOV, Christopher M. Davis, Invoking Cloture in the Senate (June 4, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-459 GOV, Richard C. Sachs, Introducing a Senate Bill or Resolution (April 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-505 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, National Emergency Powers (August 30, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-544 GOV, Judy Schneider, Subcommittees in the House of Representatives (May 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-606 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-611, Harold C. Relyea, Presidential Directives: Background and Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-721, Robert Keith & Allen Schick, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (November 20, 2008). (.pdf)
  • THE PREAMBLE (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE I [LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE II [EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE III [JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE IV [STATES’ RELATIONS] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE V [MODE OF AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VI [PRIOR DEBTS, NATIONAL SUPREMACY, AND OATHS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VII [RATIFICATION] (.pdf)
  • [PREFACE TO THE BILL OF RIGHTS] AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION: FIRST THROUGH TENTH AMENDMENTS [Bill of Rights] (.pdf)
  • FIRST AMENDMENT [RELIGION AND EXPRESSION] (.pdf)
  • SECOND AMENDMENT [BEARING ARMS] (.pdf)
  • THIRD AMENDMENT [QUARTERING SOLDIERS] (.pdf)
  • FOURTH AMENDMENT [SEARCH AND SEIZURE] (.pdf)
  • FIFTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF PERSONS] (.pdf)
  • SIXTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF ACCUSED IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CIVIL TRIALS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTH AMENDMENT [FURTHER GUARANTEES IN CRIMINAL CASES] (.pdf)
  • NINTH AMENDMENT [UNENUMERATED RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TENTH AMENDMENT [RESERVED POWERS] (.pdf)
  • ELEVENTH AMENDMENT [SUITS AGAINST STATES] (.pdf)
  • TWELFTH AMENDMENT [ELECTION OF PRESIDENT] (.pdf)
  • THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT [SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE] (.pdf)
  • FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS GUARANTEED, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENSHIP, DUE PROCESS AND EQUAL PROTECTION] (.pdf)
  • FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO VOTE] (.pdf)
  • SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT [INCOME TAX] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT [POPULAR ELECTION OF SENATORS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT [PROHIBITION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS] (.pdf)
  • NINETEENTH AMENDMENT [WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TWENTIETH AMENDMENT [COMMENCEMENT OF THE TERMS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIRST AMENDMENT [REPEAL OF THE EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SECOND AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL TENURE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FOR D.C.] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT [ABOLITION OF THE POLL TAX] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL VACANCY AND DISABILITY] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT [REDUCTION OF VOTING AGE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CONGRESSIONAL PAY LIMITATION] (.pdf)
  • STATE CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY PROVISIONS AND MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL OR HELD TO BE PREEMPTED BY FEDERAL LAW (1789–2002) (.pdf)
  • ACTS OF CONGRESS HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES (.pdf)
  • SUPREME COURT DECISIONS OVERRULED BY SUBSEQUENT DECISION (.pdf)
  • TABLE OF CASES (.pdf)
  • INDEX (.pdf)
  • EBTER135, Marcia S . Smith, Internet Privacy : Law Enforcement Monitoring of E- Mail and Web Usage (August 17, 2004). (.pdf)
  • GAO-01-975T, Central Intelligence Agency: Observations on GAO Access to Information on CIA Programs and Activities, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management and Intergovernmental Relations, and the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations, Committee on Governmental Reform, House of Representatives, Statement of Henry L. Hinton, Jr. (July 18, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Side-by-Side Comparison of Intelligence Community Reforms Proposed by 9/11 Commission, the Bush Administration, Senators Feinstein, Graham and Daschle, and Repre sentatives Harman and Goss; and Current Statute (August 11, 2004). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum To Senator Dianne Feinstein from Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (December 14, 2005). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information (January 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions (January 18, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum To Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Attention: Mike Davidson, From American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Probable Cause, Reasonable Suspicion, and Reasonableness Standards in the Context of the Fourth Amendment and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (January 30, 2006). (.pdf)
  • R40077, Anna C. Henning, Compulsory DNA Collection: A Fourth Amendment Analysis (January 23, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40136, Alfred Cumming, Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (January 28, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40138, Edward C. Liu, Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009 (March 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40139, Michael John Garcia, Elizabeth B. Bazan, R. Chuck Mason, Edward C. Liu, & Anna C. Henning, Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues (November 17, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40427, John Rollings & Anna C. Henning, Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations (March 10, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40603, Edward C. Liu, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information (May 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40614, Michael John Garcia & R. Chuck Mason, Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States (October 1, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40641, John R. Luckey, Valerie Bailey Grasso, & Kate M. Manuel, Inherently Governmental Functions and Department of Defense Operations: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress (February 1, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40691, Alfred Cumming, Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40698, Alfred Cumming, “Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40766, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Issues for the 111th Congress (August 12, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40785, Charles Doyle, Qui Tam: The False Claims Act and Related Federal Statutes (August 6, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40802, Susan Navarro Smelcer, Supreme Court Justices: Demographic Characteristics, Professional Experience, and Legal Education, 1789-2010 (April 9, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40835, Moshe Schwartz, The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress (June 22, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40836, Catherine A. Theohary & John Rollins, Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress (January 12, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40944, Brian T. Yeh & Lydia Grunstra, The Copyright Registration Requirement and Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Legal Analysis of Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick (November 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40980, Anna C. Henning, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Charles Doyle, & Edward C. Liu, Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization (March 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41003, Elizabeth Rybicki, Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects (January 4, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41022, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns (January 15, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41120, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Kennon H. Nakamura, Casey L. Addis, & Thomas Lum, U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology (April 5, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41299, Susan Navarro Smelcer & Kenneth R. Thomas, From Solicitor General to Supreme Court Nominee: Responsibilities, History, and the Nomination of Elena Kagan (June 23, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41305, Vanessa K. Burrows, Supreme Court Nominee Elena Kagan: Administrative Law and the Nondelegation Doctrine (June 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41306, Emily C. Barbour, Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws (June 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41404, Jennifer K. Elsea, Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information (December 6, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30240, Frederick M. Kaiser & Walter J. Oleszek, Congressional Oversight Manual (May 1, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30252, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S. (December 3, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30315, Kenneth R. Thomas, Federalism, State Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power (February 1, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30319, Morton Rosenberg, Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments (August 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30343, Sandy Streeter, Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices (September 26, 2000). (.pdf)
  • RL30349, Frederick M. Kaiser, GAO: Government Accountability Office and General Accounting Office (September 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30365, Kevin R. Kosar, Federal Government Corporations: An Overview (January 7, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30465, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30677, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (June 8, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30725, Mildred Amer, The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor (May 23, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL30795, Clinton T. Brass, General Management Laws: A Compendium (May 19, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL30796, Clay H. Wellborn & Michael Kolakowski, Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer (January 9, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30812, Cassandra L. Foley, Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them (January 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30824, Harold C. Relyea, The Privacy Act: Emerging Issues and Related Legislation (February 26, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (June 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (September 23, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30945, Judy Schneider, House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison (April 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30946, Shirley A. Kan, Richard Best, Christopher Bolkcom, Robert Chapman, Richard Cronin, Kerry Dumbaugh, Stuart Goldman, Mark Manyin, Wayne Morrison, & Ronald O’Rourke, China-U.S. Aircraft Collision Incident of April 2001: Assessments and Policy Implications (October 10, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30957, Shirley A. Kan, Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 (July 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30959, Henry B. Hogue, Maureen Bearden, & Terrence L. Lisbeth, Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations (March 18, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31112, Louis Fisher, Recess Appointments of Federal Judges (September 5, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL31126, Jack Maskell, Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules (October 24, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31146, Chad C. Haddal, Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation (April 28, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31200, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act (December 10, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL31289, Marcia S. Smith, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Glenn J. McLoughlin, & John Dimitri Moteff, The Internet and the USA PATRIOT Act: Potential Implications for Electronic Privacy, Security, Commerce, and Government (March 4, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31351, Todd B. Tatelman & Henry B. Hogue, Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview (November 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL31367, Jennifer K. Elsea, Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism (March 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31367, Jennifer K. Elsea, Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31377, Charles Doyle, The USA PATRIOT Act: A Legal Analysis (April 15, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31408, Marcia S. Smith, Internet Privacy: Overview and Legislation in the 109th Congress, 1st Session (January 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31509, Kristin Archick, Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation (July 23, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31594, R. Eric Petersen & Jeffrey W. Seifert, Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges (March 25, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31636, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Wireless Privacy and Spam: Issues for Congress (December 28, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31658, Rensselaer Lee, Terrorist Financing: The U.S. and International Response (December 6, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31675, Richard F. Grimmett, Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process (January 8, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL31695, Dana A. Shea, Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress (February 2, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL31730, Gina Marie Stevens, Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31786, Amy Belasco, Total Information Awareness Programs: Funding, Composition, and Oversight Issues (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (September 14, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (March 20, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining: An Overview (June 7, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (January 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (August 27, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31822, Jack Maskell, Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31826, Yule Kim, Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment (June 29, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL31836, Louis Fisher, Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power (April 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31883, Alfred Cumming, Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives (March 8, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31920, Todd Masse, Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31988, Alfred Cumming, Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress (April 7, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31989, Denis Steven Rutkus, Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate (February 19, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32022, Bart Elias, Air Cargo Security (July 30, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32095, Todd Masse, The FBI: Past, Present, and Future (October 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32113, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Intervention in the Administrative Process: Legal and Ethical Considerations (September 25, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (October 17, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (January 29, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32171, Kenneth R. Thomas, Limiting Court Jurisdiction Over Federal Constitutional Issues: “Court-Stripping” (January 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32189, Claudia Copeland, Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector (March 16, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32120, Audrey Kurth Cronin, The “FTO List” and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (October 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32223, Audrey Kurth Cronin, Huda Aden, Adam Frost, & Benjamin Jones, Foreign Terrorist Organizations (February 6, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32336, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress (August 4, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32366, William J. Krouse, Terrorist Identification, Screening, and Tracking Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 (April 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32395, Jennifer K. Elsea, U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues (May 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32399, Ruth Ellen Wasem, Jennifer Lake, Lisa Seghetti, James Monke, & Stephen Viña, Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues (May 26, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32411, Clay Wilson, Network Centric Warfare: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress (March 18, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32411, Clay Wilson, Network Centric Operations: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress (March 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32417, Raphael Perl, The Department of State’s Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Trends, State Sponsors, and Related Issues (June 1, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32438, Michael John Garcia, U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques (January 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32438, Michael John Garcia, U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques (January 26, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL32492, Anne Leland & Mari-Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics (February 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32500, Richard A. Best, Jr., Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004 (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32506, Alfred Cumming, The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress (August 12, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32508, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress (February 22, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32515, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies (December 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32521, Jim Monke, Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness (August 25, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32521, Jim Monke, Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness (March 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (May 9, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (March 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32528, Michael John Garcia, International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law (January 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32544, Clay Wilson, High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments (July 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32562, Chad C. Haddal, Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol (March 3, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32567, Jennifer K. Elsea, Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions (September 8, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32608, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress (January 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32609, Thomas J. Nicola, 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Intelligence Budget (September 27, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32659, Sandy Streeter, Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives (October 29, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32750, Kevin R. Kosar, Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities (March 21, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 10, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32816, Todd M. Masse, The National Counterterrorism Center: Implementation Challenges and Issues for Congress (March 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32880, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL32907, Charles Doyle, Security and Freedom Ensured Act (SAFE Act)(H.R. 1526) and Security and Freedom Enhancement Act (SAFE Act)(S. 737): Section By Section Analysis (May 9, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32917, Wendy H. Schacht & John R. Thomas, Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security (November 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32917, Wendy H. Schacht & John R. Thomas, Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security (August 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32935, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Oversight of Judges and Justices (May 31, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32963, Ryan J. Watson, The Availability of Judicial Review Regarding Military Base Closures and Realignments (June 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33033, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, Intelligence Reform Implementation at the Federal Bureau of Investigation: Issues and Options for Congress (August 16, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33110, Amy Belasco, The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 (September 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33160, Raphael Perl, Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of Measuring Effectiveness (March 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33180, Jennifer K. Elsea, Michael John Garcia, & Kenneth R. Thomas, Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court (July 29, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (December 27, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (January 5, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33215, Louis Fisher, National Security Whistleblowers (December 30, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33223, Charles Doyle, Venue: A Legal Analysis of Where a Federal Crime May Be Tried (December 28, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33247, Richard S. Beth & Betsy Palmer, Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2009 (June 5, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33259, Lisa M. Seghetti & Nathan James, Federal Habeas Corpus Relief: Background, Legislation, and Issues (February 1, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33303, Genevieve J. Knezo, “Sensitive But Unclassified” Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information (February 15, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33320, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33321, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33332, Brian T. Yeh & Charles Doyle, USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33341, Robert Bamberger, The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues (August 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33386, Jody Feder, Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer (October 24, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33391, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview (April 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33407, Jim Nichol, William H. Cooper, Carl Ek, Steven Woehrel, Amy F. Woolf, Steven A. Hildreth, & Vincent Morelli, Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33424, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Edward C. Liu, & Gina Stevens, Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities (February 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33453, Jim Nichol, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests (January 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33471, Ida A. Brudnick, The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process (March 19, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33473, Nathan James, Judicial Security: Comparison of Legislation in the 110th Congress (July 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33494, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues (March 8, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33502, Jennifer K. Elsea, Protection of National Security Information (December 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33532, Richard F. Grimmett, War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance (January 12, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (July 12, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (June 11, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33548, Jonathan Medalia, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments (January 6, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Todd Masse, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (August 18, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Mark A. Randol, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (January 14, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33637, Elizabeth B. Bazan, H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): “Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act” (September 8, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33643, Jennifer K. Elsea, Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues (September 12, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33643, Jennifer K. Elsea & Julie Kim, Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33645, William J. Krouse & Bart Elias, Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening (September 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33645, William J. Krouse & Bart Elias, Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening (December 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33655, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment (October 23, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33655, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Requirements of the Detainee Treatment Act (August 26, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33662, Michael John Garcia, The War Crimes Act: Current Issues (January 22, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33667, T.J. Halstead, Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications (September 17, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33715, Alfred Cumming, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions (October 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33715, Alfred Cumming, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions (July 6, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33833, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review: An Overview (January 24, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33873, Richard A. Best Jr., Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role (February 13, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33895, Pamela Hairston, Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources (February 28, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34003, Lauren Ploch, Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa (March 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34097, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure (April 15, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34114, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: A Sketch (August 1, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (August 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (February 14, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34177, Todd Masse & John Rollins, A Summary of Fusion Centers: Core Issues and Options for Congress (September 19, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (October 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (August 20, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34231, Richard A. Best Jr. & Alfred Cumming, Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals (May 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL34279, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34303, Charles Doyle, Obstruction of Justice: an Overview of Some of the Federal Statutes that Prohibit Interference with Judicial, Executive, or Legislative Activities (December 27, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34385, Harold C. Relyea, Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34404, Yule Kim, Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices (July 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34444, Yule Kim, Removing Aliens from the United States: Judicial Review of Removal Orders (September 25, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34473, Pat Towell & Stephen Daggett, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (May 5, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34473, Pat Towell, Stephen Daggett, & Amy Belasco, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (February 25, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34505, Catherine Dale, National Security Strategy: Legislative Mandates, Execution to Date, and Considerations for Congress (December 15, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34524, Vivian C. Jones & Michael F. Martin, International Trade: Rules of Origin (June 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34531, R. Chuck Mason, Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Might One Be Utilized In Iraq? (June 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34531, R. Chuck Mason, Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Has It Been Utilized? (June 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (June 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (September 8, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34543, Liana Sun Wyler, International Drug Control Policy (June 23, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34566, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34600, Edward C. Liu, Retroactive Immunity Provided by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (July 25, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (July 31, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (December 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (March 8, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL34692, Thomas H. Neale, Presidential Succession: Perspectives, Contemporary Analysis, and 110th Congress Proposed Legislation (October 3, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34697, Anna C. Henning, Supreme Court Appellate Jurisdiction Over Military Court Cases (October 6, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34701, Vincent Morelli, Carl Ek, Paul Belkin, Steven Woehrel, & Jim Nichol, NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates (April 14, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS20095, James V. Saturno, The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview (January 28, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS20145, Mildred Amer, Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview (November 3, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS20443, Frederick M. Kaiser, American National Government: An Overview (May 20, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20590, Jennifer Elsea, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch (June 6, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS20617, Richard S. Beth, How Bills Amend Statutes (August 4, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (May 27, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (January 27, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RS20794, Judy Schneider, The Committee System in the U.S. Congress (May 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20846, Vanessa K. Burrows, Executive Orders: Issuance and Revocation (March 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RS20991, Judy Schneider, Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff (June 5, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS21012, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (September 14, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RS21012, Charles Doyle & Jennifer Elsea, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (May 27, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21037, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary (January 4, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RS21056, Jennifer Elsea, Trying Terrorists as War Criminals (October 29, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RS21450, Stephen R. Vina, Homeland Security: Scope of the Secretary’s Reorganization Authority (August 9, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21472, Jennifer Elsea, Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113 (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS21618, Kristin Archick, The European Union’s “Constitution” (December 22, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21627, Jennifer K. Elsea & Michael John Garcia, Implications of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations upon the Regulation of Consular Identification Cards (January 26, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21636, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Identities Protection Act (October 3, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS21696, Richard A. Best, Jr., U.S. Intelligence and Policymaking: The Iraq Experience (December 2, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21698, Jason Blazakis, Border Security and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (January 2, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21698, Christopher Bolkcom & Blas Nuñez-Neto, Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance (May 13, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS21758, Stephanie Smith, Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Establishment and Composition (August 23, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21766, Dana A. Shea, Radiological Dispersal Devices: Selected Issues in Consequence Management (January 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21900, Nathan Brooks, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (August 5, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21900, Jennifer K. Elsea, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21908, Judy Schneider, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Term Limits and Assignment Limitations (October 14, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21945, Stephen Daggett, The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21948, Richard A. Best, Jr., The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis (February 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21955, Paul S. Rundquist & Christopher M. Davis, S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters (October 15, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS22011, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: “Lone Wolf” Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (December 29, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS22017, Richard A. Best Jr. & Andrew Feickert, Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress (December 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22017, Richard A. Best Jr. & Andrew Feickert, Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress (August 3, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS22030, Kristin Archick, U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism (January 28, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS22112, Richard A Best, Jr., Alfred Cumming, & Todd Masse, Director of National Intelligence: Statutory Authorities (April 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22122, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Intelligence Investigations: A Sketch (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22123, Judy Schneider, House Select Committee on Intelligence: Leadership and Assignment Limitations (April 25, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22230, Kevin R. Kosar, Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RS22312, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment (January 24, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22406, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS22407, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22432, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch (April 28, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22466, Jennifer K. Elsea, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: Military Commissions in the “Global War on Terrorism” (July 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22783, Charles Doyle, Obstruction of Justice: An Abridged Overview of Related Federal Criminal Laws (December 27, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RS22857, Clay Wilson, Avatars, Virtual Reality Technology, and the U.S. Military: Emerging Policy Issues (April 9, 2008). (.pdf)

 

 

Full Index of CRS Reports
Organized by Primary Legal Source


Constitutional Law

  • THE PREAMBLE (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE I [LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE II [EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE III [JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE IV [STATES’ RELATIONS] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE V [MODE OF AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VI [PRIOR DEBTS, NATIONAL SUPREMACY, AND OATHS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • ARTICLE VII [RATIFICATION] (.pdf)
  • [PREFACE TO THE BILL OF RIGHTS] AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION: FIRST THROUGH TENTH AMENDMENTS [Bill of Rights] (.pdf)
  • FIRST AMENDMENT [RELIGION AND EXPRESSION] (.pdf)
  • SECOND AMENDMENT [BEARING ARMS] (.pdf)
  • THIRD AMENDMENT [QUARTERING SOLDIERS] (.pdf)
  • FOURTH AMENDMENT [SEARCH AND SEIZURE] (.pdf)
  • FIFTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF PERSONS] (.pdf)
  • SIXTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS OF ACCUSED IN CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CIVIL TRIALS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTH AMENDMENT [FURTHER GUARANTEES IN CRIMINAL CASES] (.pdf)
  • NINTH AMENDMENT [UNENUMERATED RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TENTH AMENDMENT [RESERVED POWERS] (.pdf)
  • ELEVENTH AMENDMENT [SUITS AGAINST STATES] (.pdf)
  • TWELFTH AMENDMENT [ELECTION OF PRESIDENT] (.pdf)
  • THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT [SLAVERY AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE] (.pdf)
  • FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHTS GUARANTEED, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES OF CITIZENSHIP, DUE PROCESS AND EQUAL PROTECTION] (.pdf)
  • FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT [RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO VOTE] (.pdf)
  • SIXTEENTH AMENDMENT [INCOME TAX] (.pdf)
  • SEVENTEENTH AMENDMENT [POPULAR ELECTION OF SENATORS] (.pdf)
  • EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT [PROHIBITION OF INTOXICATING LIQUORS] (.pdf)
  • NINETEENTH AMENDMENT [WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE RIGHTS] (.pdf)
  • TWENTIETH AMENDMENT [COMMENCEMENT OF THE TERMS OF OFFICE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIRST AMENDMENT [REPEAL OF THE EIGHTEENTH AMENDMENT] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SECOND AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL TENURE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FOR D.C.] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT [ABOLITION OF THE POLL TAX] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT [PRESIDENTIAL VACANCY AND DISABILITY] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT [REDUCTION OF VOTING AGE] (.pdf)
  • TWENTY-SEVENTH AMENDMENT [CONGRESSIONAL PAY LIMITATION] (.pdf)
  • STATE CONSTITUTIONAL AND STATUTORY PROVISIONS AND MUNICIPAL ORDINANCES HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL OR HELD TO BE PREEMPTED BY FEDERAL LAW (1789–2002) (.pdf)
  • ACTS OF CONGRESS HELD UNCONSTITUTIONAL IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES (.pdf)
  • SUPREME COURT DECISIONS OVERRULED BY SUBSEQUENT DECISION (.pdf)
  • TABLE OF CASES (.pdf)
  • INDEX (.pdf)

Statutory Law

  • Order Code 89-172 A, Larry M. Eig, Classified Information Procedures Act (CIPA): An Overview (March 2, 1989). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 94-166, Charles Doyle, Extraterritorial Application of American Criminal Law (March 26, 2010). (.pdf).
  • Order Code 94-261, Richard A. Best Jr., Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-717, Henry Cohen, Federal Tort Claims Act (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-815, Henry Cohen, Freedom of Speech and Press: Exceptions to the First Amendment (October 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 95-964 S, Charles Doyle, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: The Use of the Military to Execute Civilian Law (June 1, 2000). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-71, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Access to Government Information In the United States (August 31, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-589, Yule Kim, Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends (August 31, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-684, Sandy Streeter, The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (December 2, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-771 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (April 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-771, Kevin R. Kosar, Security Classification Policy and Procedure: E.O. 12958, as Amended (December 31, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-865, James V. Saturno, Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process (June 23, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-896, Jeanne J. Grimmett, Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties (January 3, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 97-936 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight (January 3, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-67, Lennard G. Kruger, John D. Moteff, Angele A. Gilroy, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Patricia Moloney Figliola, & Rita Tehan, Internet: An Overview of Key Technology Policy Issues Affecting Its Use and Growth (January 5, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-186, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Anna C. Henning, Impeachment: An Overview of Overview of Procedure, and Practice (April 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-241 GOV, Thomas P. Carr, Committee Types and Roles (February 14, 2002). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-292, P.L. Morgan, Promulgating Procedural Rules for the United States District Courts and Courts of Appeals (March 26, 1998). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-326, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (December 3, 2009). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-327, Gina Marie Stevens & Charles Doyle, Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (September 2, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution (November 15, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present (September 25, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-425 GOV, Christopher M. Davis, Invoking Cloture in the Senate (June 4, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-459 GOV, Richard C. Sachs, Introducing a Senate Bill or Resolution (April 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-505 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, National Emergency Powers (August 30, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-544 GOV, Judy Schneider, Subcommittees in the House of Representatives (May 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-606 GOV, Harold C. Relyea, The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-611, Harold C. Relyea, Presidential Directives: Background and Overview (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-721, Robert Keith & Allen Schick, Introduction to the Federal Budget Process (November 20, 2008). (.pdf)
  • EBTER135, Marcia S . Smith, Internet Privacy : Law Enforcement Monitoring of E- Mail and Web Usage (August 17, 2004). (.pdf)
  • GAO-01-975T, Central Intelligence Agency: Observations on GAO Access to Information on CIA Programs and Activities, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management and Intergovernmental Relations, and the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations, Committee on Governmental Reform, House of Representatives, Statement of Henry L. Hinton, Jr. (July 18, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Side-by-Side Comparison of Intelligence Community Reforms Proposed by 9/11 Commission, the Bush Administration, Senators Feinstein, Graham and Daschle, and Repre sentatives Harman and Goss; and Current Statute (August 11, 2004). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum To Senator Dianne Feinstein from Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (December 14, 2005). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information (January 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Statutory Procedures Under Which Congress Is To Be Informed of U.S. Intelligence Activities, Including Covert Actions (January 18, 2006). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum To Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Attention: Mike Davidson, From American Law Division, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Probable Cause, Reasonable Suspicion, and Reasonableness Standards in the Context of the Fourth Amendment and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (January 30, 2006). (.pdf)
  • R40077, Anna C. Henning, Compulsory DNA Collection: A Fourth Amendment Analysis (January 23, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40136, Alfred Cumming, Congress as a Consumer of Intelligence Information (January 28, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40138, Edward C. Liu, Amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Set to Expire in 2009 (March 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40139, Michael John Garcia, Elizabeth B. Bazan, R. Chuck Mason, Edward C. Liu, & Anna C. Henning, Closing the Guantanamo Detention Center: Legal Issues (November 17, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40427, John Rollings & Anna C. Henning, Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations (March 10, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40603, Edward C. Liu, The State Secrets Privilege and Other Limits on Litigation Involving Classified Information (May 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40614, Michael John Garcia & R. Chuck Mason, Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States (October 1, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40641, John R. Luckey, Valerie Bailey Grasso, & Kate M. Manuel, Inherently Governmental Functions and Department of Defense Operations: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress (February 1, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40691, Alfred Cumming, Sensitive Covert Action Notifications: Oversight Options for Congress (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40698, Alfred Cumming, “Gang of Four” Congressional Intelligence Notifications (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40766, Wendy R. Ginsberg, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA): Issues for the 111th Congress (August 12, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40785, Charles Doyle, Qui Tam: The False Claims Act and Related Federal Statutes (August 6, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40802, Susan Navarro Smelcer, Supreme Court Justices: Demographic Characteristics, Professional Experience, and Legal Education, 1789-2010 (April 9, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40835, Moshe Schwartz, The Department of Defense’s Use of Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background, Analysis, and Options for Congress (June 22, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40836, Catherine A. Theohary & John Rollins, Cybersecurity: Current Legislation, Executive Branch Initiatives, and Options for Congress (January 12, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R40944, Brian T. Yeh & Lydia Grunstra, The Copyright Registration Requirement and Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Legal Analysis of Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick (November 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40980, Anna C. Henning, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Charles Doyle, & Edward C. Liu, Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization (March 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41003, Elizabeth Rybicki, Amendments Between the Houses: Procedural Options and Effects (January 4, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41022, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns (January 15, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41120, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Kennon H. Nakamura, Casey L. Addis, & Thomas Lum, U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology (April 5, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41299, Susan Navarro Smelcer & Kenneth R. Thomas, From Solicitor General to Supreme Court Nominee: Responsibilities, History, and the Nomination of Elena Kagan (June 23, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41305, Vanessa K. Burrows, Supreme Court Nominee Elena Kagan: Administrative Law and the Nondelegation Doctrine (June 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41306, Emily C. Barbour, Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws (June 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • R41404, Jennifer K. Elsea, Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information (December 6, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30240, Frederick M. Kaiser & Walter J. Oleszek, Congressional Oversight Manual (May 1, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30252, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S. (December 3, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30315, Kenneth R. Thomas, Federalism, State Sovereignty, and the Constitution: Basis and Limits of Congressional Power (February 1, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30319, Morton Rosenberg, Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments (August 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30343, Sandy Streeter, Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices (September 26, 2000). (.pdf)
  • RL30349, Frederick M. Kaiser, GAO: Government Accountability Office and General Accounting Office (September 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30365, Kevin R. Kosar, Federal Government Corporations: An Overview (January 7, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30465, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of the Statutory Framework and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review Decisions (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30677, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Digital Surveillance: The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (June 8, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL30725, Mildred Amer, The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor (May 23, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL30795, Clinton T. Brass, General Management Laws: A Compendium (May 19, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL30796, Clay H. Wellborn & Michael Kolakowski, Legislative Research in Congressional Offices: A Primer (January 9, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30812, Cassandra L. Foley, Federal Statutes: What They Are and Where to Find Them (January 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30824, Harold C. Relyea, The Privacy Act: Emerging Issues and Related Legislation (February 26, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (June 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (September 23, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30945, Judy Schneider, House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison (April 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30946, Shirley A. Kan, Richard Best, Christopher Bolkcom, Robert Chapman, Richard Cronin, Kerry Dumbaugh, Stuart Goldman, Mark Manyin, Wayne Morrison, & Ronald O’Rourke, China-U.S. Aircraft Collision Incident of April 2001: Assessments and Policy Implications (October 10, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL30957, Shirley A. Kan, Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 (July 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30959, Henry B. Hogue, Maureen Bearden, & Terrence L. Lisbeth, Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations (March 18, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31112, Louis Fisher, Recess Appointments of Federal Judges (September 5, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL31126, Jack Maskell, Lobbying Congress: An Overview of Legal Provisions and Congressional Ethics Rules (October 24, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31146, Chad C. Haddal, Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation (April 28, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31200, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the USA PATRIOT Act (December 10, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RL31289, Marcia S. Smith, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Glenn J. McLoughlin, & John Dimitri Moteff, The Internet and the USA PATRIOT Act: Potential Implications for Electronic Privacy, Security, Commerce, and Government (March 4, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31351, Todd B. Tatelman & Henry B. Hogue, Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: An Overview (November 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL31367, Jennifer K. Elsea, Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism (March 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31367, Jennifer K. Elsea, Treatment of “Battlefield Detainees” in the War on Terrorism (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31377, Charles Doyle, The USA PATRIOT Act: A Legal Analysis (April 15, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31408, Marcia S. Smith, Internet Privacy: Overview and Legislation in the 109th Congress, 1st Session (January 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31509, Kristin Archick, Europe and Counterterrorism: Strengthening Police and Judicial Cooperation (July 23, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31594, R. Eric Petersen & Jeffrey W. Seifert, Congressional Continuity of Operations (COOP): An Overview of Concepts and Challenges (March 25, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31636, Patricia Moloney Figliola, Wireless Privacy and Spam: Issues for Congress (December 28, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31658, Rensselaer Lee, Terrorist Financing: The U.S. and International Response (December 6, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RL31675, Richard F. Grimmett, Arms Sales: Congressional Review Process (January 8, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL31695, Dana A. Shea, Balancing Scientific Publication and National Security Concerns: Issues for Congress (February 2, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL31730, Gina Marie Stevens, Privacy: Total Information Awareness Programs and Related Information Access, Collection, and Protection Laws (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31786, Amy Belasco, Total Information Awareness Programs: Funding, Composition, and Oversight Issues (March 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (September 14, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31787, Clay Wilson, Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues (March 20, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining: An Overview (June 7, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (January 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (August 27, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL31822, Jack Maskell, Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31826, Yule Kim, Protecting the U.S. Perimeter: Border Searches Under the Fourth Amendment (June 29, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL31836, Louis Fisher, Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power (April 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31883, Alfred Cumming, Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives (March 8, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31920, Todd Masse, Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31988, Alfred Cumming, Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress (April 7, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31989, Denis Steven Rutkus, Supreme Court Appointment Process: Roles of the President, Judiciary Committee, and Senate (February 19, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32022, Bart Elias, Air Cargo Security (July 30, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32095, Todd Masse, The FBI: Past, Present, and Future (October 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32113, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Intervention in the Administrative Process: Legal and Ethical Considerations (September 25, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Computer Attack and Cyber Terrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (October 17, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32114, Clay Wilson, Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress (January 29, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32171, Kenneth R. Thomas, Limiting Court Jurisdiction Over Federal Constitutional Issues: “Court-Stripping” (January 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32189, Claudia Copeland, Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector (March 16, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32120, Audrey Kurth Cronin, The “FTO List” and Congress: Sanctioning Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations (October 21, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32223, Audrey Kurth Cronin, Huda Aden, Adam Frost, & Benjamin Jones, Foreign Terrorist Organizations (February 6, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32336, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress (August 4, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32366, William J. Krouse, Terrorist Identification, Screening, and Tracking Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 (April 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32395, Jennifer K. Elsea, U.S. Treatment of Prisoners in Iraq: Selected Legal Issues (May 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32399, Ruth Ellen Wasem, Jennifer Lake, Lisa Seghetti, James Monke, & Stephen Viña, Border Security: Inspections Practices, Policies, and Issues (May 26, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32411, Clay Wilson, Network Centric Warfare: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress (March 18, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32411, Clay Wilson, Network Centric Operations: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress (March 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32417, Raphael Perl, The Department of State’s Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: Trends, State Sponsors, and Related Issues (June 1, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32438, Michael John Garcia, U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques (January 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32438, Michael John Garcia, U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques (January 26, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL32492, Anne Leland & Mari-Jana "M-J" Oboroceanu, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics (February 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32500, Richard A. Best, Jr., Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004 (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32506, Alfred Cumming, The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress (August 12, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32508, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Programs: Issues for Congress (February 22, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32515, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies (December 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32521, Jim Monke, Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness (August 25, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32521, Jim Monke, Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness (March 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (February 15, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (May 9, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32525, Frederick M. Kaiser, Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives (March 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32528, Michael John Garcia, International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law (January 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32544, Clay Wilson, High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: Threat Assessments (July 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32562, Chad C. Haddal, Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol (March 3, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32567, Jennifer K. Elsea, Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions (September 8, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32608, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: Selected Legislation from the 108th Congress (January 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32609, Thomas J. Nicola, 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Intelligence Budget (September 27, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32659, Sandy Streeter, Consolidating Intelligence Appropriation and Authorization in a Single Committee: 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Alternatives (October 29, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32750, Kevin R. Kosar, Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities (March 21, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 10, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32780, Harold C. Relyea, Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress (July 21, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL32816, Todd M. Masse, The National Counterterrorism Center: Implementation Challenges and Issues for Congress (March 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32880, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Background and Proposed Adjustments (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32890, Michael John Garcia, Renditions: Constraints Imposed by Laws on Torture (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL32907, Charles Doyle, Security and Freedom Ensured Act (SAFE Act)(H.R. 1526) and Security and Freedom Enhancement Act (SAFE Act)(S. 737): Section By Section Analysis (May 9, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32917, Wendy H. Schacht & John R. Thomas, Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security (November 27, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL32917, Wendy H. Schacht & John R. Thomas, Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security (August 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL32935, Elizabeth B. Bazan & Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Oversight of Judges and Justices (May 31, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32963, Ryan J. Watson, The Availability of Judicial Review Regarding Military Base Closures and Realignments (June 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33033, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, Intelligence Reform Implementation at the Federal Bureau of Investigation: Issues and Options for Congress (August 16, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33110, Amy Belasco, The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 (September 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33160, Raphael Perl, Combating Terrorism: The Challenge of Measuring Effectiveness (March 12, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33180, Jennifer K. Elsea, Michael John Garcia, & Kenneth R. Thomas, Enemy Combatant Detainees: Habeas Corpus Challenges in Federal Court (July 29, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (December 27, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33209, R. Eric Petersen, Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources (January 5, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33215, Louis Fisher, National Security Whistleblowers (December 30, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33223, Charles Doyle, Venue: A Legal Analysis of Where a Federal Crime May Be Tried (December 28, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33247, Richard S. Beth & Betsy Palmer, Supreme Court Nominations: Senate Floor Procedure and Practice, 1789-2009 (June 5, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33259, Lisa M. Seghetti & Nathan James, Federal Habeas Corpus Relief: Background, Legislation, and Issues (February 1, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33303, Genevieve J. Knezo, “Sensitive But Unclassified” Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information (February 15, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33320, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33321, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Brief Legal Analysis (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33332, Brian T. Yeh & Charles Doyle, USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005: A Legal Analysis (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33341, Robert Bamberger, The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: History, Perspectives, and Issues (August 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33386, Jody Feder, Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer (October 24, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33391, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview (April 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33407, Jim Nichol, William H. Cooper, Carl Ek, Steven Woehrel, Amy F. Woolf, Steven A. Hildreth, & Vincent Morelli, Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests (January 29, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33424, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Edward C. Liu, & Gina Stevens, Government Access to Phone Calling Activity and Related Records: Legal Authorities (February 2, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33453, Jim Nichol, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia: Political Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests (January 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33471, Ida A. Brudnick, The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process (March 19, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL33473, Nathan James, Judicial Security: Comparison of Legislation in the 110th Congress (July 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33494, Harold C. Relyea, Security Classified and Controlled Information: History, Status, and Emerging Management Issues (March 8, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33502, Jennifer K. Elsea, Protection of National Security Information (December 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33532, Richard F. Grimmett, War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance (January 12, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (July 12, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33539, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress (June 11, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33548, Jonathan Medalia, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments (January 6, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Todd Masse, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (August 18, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Mark A. Randol, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (January 14, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33637, Elizabeth B. Bazan, H.R. 5825 (109th Congress): “Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act” (September 8, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33643, Jennifer K. Elsea, Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues (September 12, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33643, Jennifer K. Elsea & Julie Kim, Undisclosed U.S. Detention Sites Overseas: Background and Legal Issues (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33645, William J. Krouse & Bart Elias, Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening (September 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33645, William J. Krouse & Bart Elias, Terrorist Watchlist Checks and Air Passenger Prescreening (December 30, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33655, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment (October 23, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33655, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Requirements of the Detainee Treatment Act (August 26, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33662, Michael John Garcia, The War Crimes Act: Current Issues (January 22, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33667, T.J. Halstead, Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications (September 17, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33715, Alfred Cumming, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions (October 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33715, Alfred Cumming, Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions (July 6, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL33833, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and the U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review: An Overview (January 24, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33873, Richard A. Best Jr., Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role (February 13, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33895, Pamela Hairston, Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources (February 28, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34003, Lauren Ploch, Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa (March 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34097, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: Law, History, Practice, and Procedure (April 15, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34114, Morton Rosenberg & Todd B. Tatelman, Congress’s Contempt Power: A Sketch (August 1, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (August 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34143, Elizabeth B. Bazan, P.L. 110-55, the Protect America Act of 2007: Modifications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (February 14, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34177, Todd Masse & John Rollins, A Summary of Fusion Centers: Core Issues and Options for Congress (September 19, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (October 3, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34197, Morton Rosenberg, Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice (August 20, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34231, Richard A. Best Jr. & Alfred Cumming, Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals (May 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL34279, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: An Overview of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34303, Charles Doyle, Obstruction of Justice: an Overview of Some of the Federal Statutes that Prohibit Interference with Judicial, Executive, or Legislative Activities (December 27, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL34385, Harold C. Relyea, Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34404, Yule Kim, Border Searches of Laptop Computers and Other Electronic Storage Devices (July 28, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34444, Yule Kim, Removing Aliens from the United States: Judicial Review of Removal Orders (September 25, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34473, Pat Towell & Stephen Daggett, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (May 5, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34473, Pat Towell, Stephen Daggett, & Amy Belasco, Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations (February 25, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34505, Catherine Dale, National Security Strategy: Legislative Mandates, Execution to Date, and Considerations for Congress (December 15, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34524, Vivian C. Jones & Michael F. Martin, International Trade: Rules of Origin (June 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34531, R. Chuck Mason, Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Might One Be Utilized In Iraq? (June 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34531, R. Chuck Mason, Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA): What Is It, and How Has It Been Utilized? (June 18, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (June 16, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34536, Michael John Garcia, Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees’ Right to Habeas Corpus (September 8, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34543, Liana Sun Wyler, International Drug Control Policy (June 23, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34566, Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act: A Sketch of Selected Issues (July 7, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34600, Edward C. Liu, Retroactive Immunity Provided by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (July 25, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (July 31, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (December 16, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34603, Shawn Reese, The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions (March 8, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL34692, Thomas H. Neale, Presidential Succession: Perspectives, Contemporary Analysis, and 110th Congress Proposed Legislation (October 3, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34697, Anna C. Henning, Supreme Court Appellate Jurisdiction Over Military Court Cases (October 6, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL34701, Vincent Morelli, Carl Ek, Paul Belkin, Steven Woehrel, & Jim Nichol, NATO Enlargement: Albania, Croatia, and Possible Future Candidates (April 14, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS20095, James V. Saturno, The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview (January 28, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS20145, Mildred Amer, Secret Sessions of Congress: A Brief Historical Overview (November 3, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS20443, Frederick M. Kaiser, American National Government: An Overview (May 20, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20590, Jennifer Elsea, The Posse Comitatus Act and Related Matters: A Sketch (June 6, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS20617, Richard S. Beth, How Bills Amend Statutes (August 4, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (April 5, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (May 27, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS20748, Frederick M. Kaiser, Protection of Classified Information by Congress: Practices and Proposals (January 27, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RS20794, Judy Schneider, The Committee System in the U.S. Congress (May 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS20846, Vanessa K. Burrows, Executive Orders: Issuance and Revocation (March 25, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RS20991, Judy Schneider, Legislative Planning: Considerations for Congressional Staff (June 5, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS21012, Charles Doyle, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (September 14, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RS21012, Charles Doyle & Jennifer Elsea, Terrorism: Some Legal Restrictions on Military Assistance to Domestic Authorities Following a Terrorist Attack (May 27, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21037, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary (January 4, 2002). (.pdf)
  • RS21056, Jennifer Elsea, Trying Terrorists as War Criminals (October 29, 2001). (.pdf)
  • RS21450, Stephen R. Vina, Homeland Security: Scope of the Secretary’s Reorganization Authority (August 9, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21472, Jennifer Elsea, Proposed Change to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) under S. 113 (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS21618, Kristin Archick, The European Union’s “Constitution” (December 22, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21627, Jennifer K. Elsea & Michael John Garcia, Implications of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations upon the Regulation of Consular Identification Cards (January 26, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21636, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Identities Protection Act (October 3, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RS21696, Richard A. Best, Jr., U.S. Intelligence and Policymaking: The Iraq Experience (December 2, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21698, Jason Blazakis, Border Security and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (January 2, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21698, Christopher Bolkcom & Blas Nuñez-Neto, Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance (May 13, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS21758, Stephanie Smith, Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Establishment and Composition (August 23, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21766, Dana A. Shea, Radiological Dispersal Devices: Selected Issues in Consequence Management (January 26, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21900, Nathan Brooks, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (August 5, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21900, Jennifer K. Elsea, The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework (December 21, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS21908, Judy Schneider, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence: Term Limits and Assignment Limitations (October 14, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21945, Stephen Daggett, The U.S. Intelligence Budget: A Basic Overview (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS21948, Richard A. Best, Jr., The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis (February 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21955, Paul S. Rundquist & Christopher M. Davis, S.Res. 445: Senate Committee Reorganization for Homeland Security and Intelligence Matters (October 15, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS22011, Elizabeth B. Bazan, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: “Lone Wolf” Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (December 29, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RS22017, Richard A. Best Jr. & Andrew Feickert, Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress (December 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22017, Richard A. Best Jr. & Andrew Feickert, Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress (August 3, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS22030, Kristin Archick, U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism (January 28, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RS22112, Richard A Best, Jr., Alfred Cumming, & Todd Masse, Director of National Intelligence: Statutory Authorities (April 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22122, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas and National Security Letters in Criminal and Intelligence Investigations: A Sketch (April 15, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22123, Judy Schneider, House Select Committee on Intelligence: Leadership and Assignment Limitations (April 25, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22230, Kevin R. Kosar, Congressional or Federal Charters: Overview and Current Issues (January 23, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RS22312, Michael John Garcia, Interrogation of Detainees: Overview of the McCain Amendment (January 24, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22406, Charles Doyle, National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background and Recent Amendments (September 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RS22407, Charles Doyle, Administrative Subpoenas in Criminal Investigations: A Sketch (March 17, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22432, Charles Doyle, Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch (April 28, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22466, Jennifer K. Elsea, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld: Military Commissions in the “Global War on Terrorism” (July 6, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RS22783, Charles Doyle, Obstruction of Justice: An Abridged Overview of Related Federal Criminal Laws (December 27, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RS22857, Clay Wilson, Avatars, Virtual Reality Technology, and the U.S. Military: Emerging Policy Issues (April 9, 2008). (.pdf)