28 CFR 17.46: Access by persons outside the Executive Branch.
(a) Classified information shall not be disseminated outside the Executive Branch except under conditions that ensure that the information will be given protection equivalent to that afforded within the Executive Branch.
(b) Classified information originated by or in the custody of the Department may be made available to individuals or agencies outside the Executive Branch provided that such information is necessary for performance of a function from which the Federal Government will derive a benefit or advantage and that the release is not prohibited by the originating department or agency (or foreign government in the case of Foreign Government Information). Before such a release is made, the head of the Office, Board, Division, or Bureau making the release shall determine the propriety of such action, in the interest of the national security, and must approve the release. Prior to the release, the Department Security Officer must confirm that the recipient is eligible for access to the classified information involved and agrees to safeguard the information in accordance with the provisions of this part.
(c) Members of Congress, Justices of the United States Supreme Court, and Judges of the United States Courts of Appeal and District Courts do not require a determination of their eligibility for access to classified information by the Department. Federal Magistrate Judges must be determined eligible for access to classified information by the Department Security Officer pursuant to procedures approved by the Assistant Attorney General for Administration in consultation with the Judicial Conference of the United States. All other Legislative and Judicial personnel including, but not limited to, congressional staff, court reporters, typists, secretaries, law clerks, and translators who require access to classified information must be determined eligible by the Department Security Officer consistent with standards established in this regulation.
(d) When other persons outside the Executive Branch who are not subject to the National Industrial Security Program require access to classified information originated by or in the custody of the Department, but do not otherwise possess a proper access authorization, an appropriate background investigation must be completed to allow the Department Security Officer to determine their eligibility for access to classified information. The length of time it generally takes to complete an expedited background investigation is 90 days. Therefore, all persons requiring access to classified information to participate in congressional or judicial proceedings should be identified and the background investigation initiated far enough in advance to ensure a minimum impact on such proceedings.
(e) Personnel who are subject to a Department contract or grant or who are rendering consultant services to the Department and require access to classified information originated by or in the custody of the Department shall be processed for such access pursuant to procedures approved by the Assistant Attorney General for Administration.
(f)(1) The requirement that access to classified information may be granted only as is necessary for the performance of official duties may be waived, pursuant to section 4.5(a) of Executive Order 12958, for persons who:
(i) Are engaged in historical research projects; or
(ii) Have previously occupied policymaking positions to which they were appointed by the President.
(2) All persons receiving access pursuant to this paragraph (f) must have been determined to be trustworthy by the Department Security Officer as a precondition before receiving access. Such determinations shall be based on such investigation as the Department Security Officer deems appropriate. Historical researchers and former presidential appointees shall not have access to Foreign Government Information without the written permission from an appropriate authority of the foreign government concerned.
(3) Waivers of the “need-to-know” requirement under this paragraph (f) may be granted by the Department Security Officer provided that the Security Programs Manager of the Office, Board, Division, or Bureau with classification jurisdiction over the information being sought:
(i) Makes a written determination that such access is consistent with the interest of national security;
(ii) Limits such access to specific categories of information over which the Department has classification jurisdiction;
(iii) Maintains custody of the classified information at a Department facility;
(iv) Obtains the recipient's written and signed agreement to safeguard the information in accordance with the provisions of this regulation and to authorize a review of any notes and manuscript for determination that no classified information is contained therein; and
(v) In the case of former presidential appointees, limits their access to items that such former appointees originated, reviewed, signed, or received while serving as a presidential appointee and ensures that such appointee does not remove or cause to be removed any classified information reviewed.
(4) If access requested by historical researchers and former presidential appointees requires the rendering of services for which fair and equitable fees may be charged pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 9701, the requester shall be so notified and fees may be imposed.