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CRS REPORTS BY ENTITY

This page contains a growing compilation of CRS reports that provide useful background information relevant to the administrative entities involved in the U.S. intelligence effort. Presently, this compilation is far from exhaustive and many important agencies are not yet adequately covered. This library continues to grow, however, as new reports are published all the time. Eventually this page will contain comprehensive coverage with substantial CRS and GAO analysis of each of the agencies in the U.S. Intelligence Community.

 

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Statutory Definition of the U.S. Intelligence Community

Statutory Law

50 U.S.C. § 401a(4) (2010) (Title 50—Chapter 15: National Security—Subchapter A: Coordination for National Security)

As used in this Act:
   (4) The term "intelligence community" includes the following:
      (A) The Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
      (B) The Central Intelligence Agency.
      (C) The National Security Agency.
      (D) The Defense Intelligence Agency.
      (E) The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
      (F) The National Reconnaissance Office.
      (G) Other offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national intelligence through reconnaissance programs.
      (H) The intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Department of Energy.
      (I) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State.
      (J) The Office of Intelligence and Analysis of the Department of the Treasury.
      (K) The elements of the Department of Homeland Security concerned with the analysis of intelligence information, including the Office of Intelligence of the Coast Guard.
      (L) Such other elements of any other department or agency as may be designated by the President, or designated jointly by the Director of National Intelligence and the head of the department or agency concerned, as an element of the intelligence community.

Administrative Law

Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, ¶ 3.5(h) (2010)

Intelligence Community and elements of the Intelligence Community refers to:

  • (1) The Office of the Director of National Intelligence;
  • (2) The Central Intelligence Agency;
  • (3) The National Security Agency;
  • (4) The Defense Intelligence Agency;
  • (5) The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency;
  • (6) The National Reconnaissance Office;
  • (7) The other offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs;
  • (8) The intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps;
  • (9) The intelligence elements of the Federal Bureau of Investigation;
  • (10) The Office of National Security Intelligence of the Drug Enforcement Administration;
  • (11) The Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence of the Department of Energy;
  • (12) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;
  • (13) The Office of Intelligence and Analysis of the Department of the Treasury;
  • (14) The Office of Intelligence and Analysis of the Department of Homeland Security;
  • (15) The intelligence and counterintelligence elements of the Coast Guard; and
  • (16) Such other elements of any department or agency as may be designated by the President, or designated jointly by the Director and the head of the department or agency concerned, as an element of the Intelligence Community.

 

The President and National Security Council

Executive Office of the President (EOP)

  • The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview, 98-606 (November 26, 2008). (pdf)

National Security Council (NSC)

  • The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment, RL30840 (September 23, 2010). (pdf)

 

Director of National Intelligence (DNI)

    • Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals, RL34231 (May 26, 2010). (pdf)
    • Director of National Intelligence: Statutory Authorities, RS22112 (April 11, 2005). (pdf)
    • The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress, RL32506 (August 12, 2004). (pdf)
    • The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis, RS21948 (February 11, 2005). (pdf)

 

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Paramilitary Operations

  • Special Operations Forces (SOF) and CIA Paramilitary Operations: Issues for Congress, RS22017 (August 3, 2009). (pdf)

Department of Defense (DoD)

    • Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies, RL32515 (December 21, 2004). (pdf)

 

Department of Justice (DOJ)

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

  • FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress, RL32336 (August 4, 2004). (pdf)

Congressional Investigations of the DOJ and FBI

  • Congressional Investigations of the Department of Justice, 1920-2007: History, Law, and Practice, RL34197 (October 3, 2007). (pdf)

 

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Secret Service

  • The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions, RL34603 (March 8, 2010). (pdf)

Fusion Centers

  • A Summary of Fusion Centers: Core Issues and Options for Congress, RL34177 (September 19, 2007). (pdf)

 

Miscellaneous Background

Intelligence Reorganization

    • Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004, RL32500 (September 24, 2004). (pdf)

National Security Policymaking

  • National Security Strategy: Legislative Mandates, Execution to Date, and Considerations for Congress, RL34505 (December 15, 2008). (pdf)
  • U.S. Intelligence and Policymaking: The Iraq Experience, RS21696 (December 2, 2005). (pdf)

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board

  • Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status, RL34385 (November 26, 2008). (pdf)

Federal Advisory Committees

  • Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Establishment and Composition, RS21758 (August 23, 2006). (pdf)

Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: The MI5 Model

  • Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States, RL31920 (May 19, 2003). (pdf)

Full List of Relevant Reports

  • RL34231, Richard A. Best Jr. & Alfred Cumming, Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals (May 26, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RS21948, Richard A. Best, Jr., The Director of National Intelligence and Intelligence Analysis (February 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS22112, Richard A Best, Jr., Alfred Cumming, & Todd Masse, Director of National Intelligence: Statutory Authorities (April 11, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RS21450, Stephen R. Vina, Homeland Security: Scope of the Secretary’s Reorganization Authority (August 9, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Todd Masse, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (August 18, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL33616, Mark A. Randol, Homeland Security Intelligence: Perceptions, Statutory Definitions, and Approaches (January 14, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL34385, Harold C. Relyea, Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status (November 26, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (June 8, 2009). (.pdf)
  • RL30840, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment (September 23, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL32506, Alfred Cumming, The Position of Director of National Intelligence: Issues for Congress (August 12, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL33033, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, Intelligence Reform Implementation at the Federal Bureau of Investigation: Issues and Options for Congress (August 16, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32095, Todd Masse, The FBI: Past, Present, and Future (October 2, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL32336, Alfred Cumming & Todd Masse, FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress (August 4, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32816, Todd M. Masse, The National Counterterrorism Center: Implementation Challenges and Issues for Congress (March 24, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32750, Kevin R. Kosar, Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Agency Activities (March 21, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL32515, Richard A. Best, Jr., Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies (December 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32500, Richard A. Best, Jr., Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004 (September 24, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL32366, William J. Krouse, Terrorist Identification, Screening, and Tracking Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 (April 21, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL31920, Todd Masse, Domestic Intelligence in the United Kingdom: Applicability of the MI-5 Model to the United States (May 19, 2003). (.pdf)
  • RL31822, Jack Maskell, Entering the Executive Branch of Government: Potential Conflicts of Interest With Previous Employments and Affiliations (December 11, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL31883, Alfred Cumming, Counterintelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives (March 8, 2005). (.pdf)
  • RL31988, Alfred Cumming, Polygraph Use by the Department of Energy: Issues for Congress (April 7, 2006). (.pdf)
  • RL31798, Jeffrey W. Seifert, Data Mining and Homeland Security: An Overview (August 27, 2008). (.pdf)
  • R41022, Richard A. Best Jr., The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)—Responsibilities and Potential Congressional Concerns (January 15, 2010). (.pdf)
  • RL30349, Frederick M. Kaiser, GAO: Government Accountability Office and General Accounting Office (September 10, 2008). (.pdf)
  • RL30365, Kevin R. Kosar, Federal Government Corporations: An Overview (January 7, 2009). (.pdf)
  • R40641, John R. Luckey, Valerie Bailey Grasso, & Kate M. Manuel, Inherently Governmental Functions and Department of Defense Operations: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress (February 1, 2010). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379 GOV, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Establishment and Evolution (November 15, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Order Code 98-379, Frederick M. Kaiser, Statutory Offices of Inspector General: Past and Present (September 25, 2008). (.pdf)
  • GAO-01-975T, Central Intelligence Agency: Observations on GAO Access to Information on CIA Programs and Activities, Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management and Intergovernmental Relations, and the Subcommittee on National Security, Veterans Affairs, and International Relations, Committee on Governmental Reform, House of Representatives, Statement of Henry L. Hinton, Jr. (July 18, 2001). (.pdf)
  • Memorandum From Alfred Cumming, Congressional Research Service, Subject: Side-by-Side Comparison of Intelligence Community Reforms Proposed by 9/11 Commission, the Bush Administration, Senators Feinstein, Graham and Daschle, and Repre sentatives Harman and Goss; and Current Statute (August 11, 2004). (.pdf)
  • RL34177, Todd Masse & John Rollins, A Summary of Fusion Centers: Core Issues and Options for Congress (September 19, 2007). (.pdf)
  • RL33873, Richard A. Best Jr., Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role (February 13, 2007). (.pdf)